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Vaccine Preventable Disease Questions: 1.Select one vaccine preventable disease (VPD) outbreak in Australian in the past 10 years. Provide a summary of statistics for the outbreak and outline the impact of the outbreak on the patient and the community.   2.Discuss the importance of continuing to maintain high herd immunity for VPD when diseases are no longer a threat in Australia.     Answers:     1.Vaccine Preventable Disease Outbreak In Australia (For The Past 10 Years): Hepatitis A Summary Of The Outbreak Statistics According to the reports published by ABC news (2017), there have been 82 to 41 reported cases of hepatitis A occurrence since 2013. The same statistics has been reported by NSW Health (2017). According to NSW (2017), the people who become victims of Hepatitis A outbreak have mostly returned from the high-risk countries. ABC news further reported that in 2015, at least 18 people have contracted the disease in Victoria with the outbreak associated with frozen berries. NSW Health (2017) has launched an investigation in order to study the hepatitis outbreak following the confirmation of 12 cases during the past five week alone in Sydney and in associated areas. This investigation showed that 10 out of 12 people have had no recent travel to overseas and thus the reason behind the occurrence of disease is maintenance of poor hygiene. The rate of occurrence was more prevalent among the aboriginal and Torres Strait  Islander Children residing in the Northern Territory of South Australia, Queensland and Western Australia (Australian Government Department of Health, 2017). Impact Of The Outbreak On The Patient And Community According to NSW Health (2017), Australia has low incidence of hepatitis A. However, the outbreak are mostly associated with the consumption of contaminated food products or at times linked with person-to-person spread. This viral disease is mostly a result of poor hygiene and the symptoms include vomiting, nausea, high fever, dark urine, yellowing of the skin and pale stools.   2.Importance Of Herd Immunity According to the reports published by Thompson et al. (2017), the National Hepatitis A immunisation program has had a notable impact over the target population with relatively modest vaccination coverage along with evidence for suggestive f substantial herd protection effects. According to Ott, Irving and Wiersma (2012), Herd immunity signifies that not everyone in the community needs to be immunized in order to prevent the spread of the disease. If high percentage of individuals within the population is immune against the disease then it will ensure that the majority will safe guard the negligible susceptible groups because pathogen is less likely to spot any susceptible person.   References Doctors probe food link in hepatitis A outbreak. (2017). ABC News. Retrieved 22 February 2018, from NSW Health investigating hepatitis A outbreak in Sydney – News. (2017). Retrieved 22 February 2018, from NSW Health investigating hepatitis A outbreak in Sydney – News. (2017). Retrieved 22 February 2018, from Ott, J. J., Irving, G., & Wiersma, S. T. (2012). Long-term protective effects of hepatitis A vaccines. A systematic review. Vaccine, 31(1), 3-11. Thompson, C., Dey, A., Fearnley, E., Polkinghorne, B., & Beard, F. (2017). Impact of the national targeted Hepatitis A immunisation program in Australia: 2000–2014. Vaccine, 35(1), 170-176

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