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Nursing historical timeline

The nursing profession has developed significantly over the past few decades. In order to appreciate the changes, one must first look at the historical development of nursing science. Also, it is important to review the relationship of nursing science and profession. Nursing profession has had influences from other disciples particularly philosophy and ethics. Historical Development To understand, it would be best to start from the beginning of nursing science.

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Florence Nightingale in 1859 wrote notes on nursing (Ellis, 2008). ” Florence Nightingale believed that the force for healing resides within the human being and that if the environment is appropriately supportive, humans will seek to heal themselves” (George, 2011, p. 26). Since, Florence Nightingale established nursing there has been a plethora of changes and developments, including theory and practice. There are three types of nursing theories grand, mid-range, and practice theories.

In 1970 Rogers published the grand theory of An Introduction to the Theoretical Basis of nursing which discussed a holistic view of patient care (George, 2011). An example of a middle-range theory which aided in the progression of nursing is Mishel 1988, 1990 Uncertainty theory. This theory proposed that people with support of social impact view uncertainty as a normal occurrence (George, 2011). Practice theories are very direct to nursing. One example of a practice theory is Ruland and Moore Theory of peaceful end of life in 1998.

This could have been the basis for what we now know as palliative care. Nursing science and profession Nursing science has greatly influenced nursing profession. One example is evidence based practice. Nursing science developed evidence-based practice and the nursing profession have implemented it. In my experience, most hospital policies are based on evidenced based practice. Evidence based practice always changes, and also hospital policies are always changing.

For example, a simple but vital practice is hand washing against the spread of infection. Another, example of impact of nursing practice from nursing science is the creation of the nursing process. The nursing process includes assessment, diagnosis, planning, implementation, and evaluation. I personally use the nursing process in my nursing professional life on a daily basis with patient care. The nursing process has created a standard for all nursing specialties. Influences Many different influences have impacted nursing as a science.

” Nursing practice is grounded in ethics, and ethical responsibilities apply in all nurse interactions with individuals, families, student, health-care professionals – as well as with our nursing colleagues”(Kunyk & Austin, 2012, p. 381). In my current job, we have an ethics committee set up for inpatient and outpatient patients. This would be used in a situation that requires judgment of a difficult situation. Application of ethics within interaction of family members changes the approach of nursing care to holistic rather than mechanical.

Mechanical meaning just focused on the illness. Conclusion Nursing as a science and developing profession has been influenced by many variables. From the start of nursing practice with Florence Nightingale, to present day evidence based practice nursing as a science and profession has progressed tremendously and continues to grow. Nursing also has to credit those professions which influenced the progression, such as philosophy and ethics. Ethics has changed care of nursing to encompass the patient holistically.

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