In accordance with the given symptoms, it is possible to presume that the patient suffers from the hypertensive crisis (or malignant hypertension), which is a medical emergency, caused by the excessive increase in blood pressure. The crisis is fraught with serious, sometimes life-threatening changes in organs and systems of the organism: the brain, heart, kidneys (Nadar and Lip).
As a rule, hypertensive crises arise among the people, suffering from hypertension, that is, those who suffer from the raising blood pressure. Hypertensive crisis may be provoked by the stress, physical activity, as well as discontinuation of the antihypertensive medications.
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During a hypertensive crisis it may occur the following symptoms:
severe headache, which requires daily taking aspirin;
nausea, sometimes vomiting;
redness of the skin and mucous membranes of the face;
squeezing chest pain;
shortness of breath;
cramps and pain in the limbs; tingling in extremities (Nadar and Lip).
As a result of violations of the vascular regulation it occurs the spasm of the arterioles, whereby there is an increase in heart rate, a vicious cycle develops and there is a sharp rise in blood pressure, while due to the spasm many organs are in a state of hypoxia, which can lead to the development of the ischemic complications (Nadar and Lip).
For the relief of the complicated hypertensive crisis it is used the intravenous drugs such as nifedipine and clonidine. During the first 2 hours the average level of blood pressure should be reduced by 20-25% (not more); the patient should not eat, and then, in the next 6 hours the blood pressure should be reduced to 160/100 mm Hg. Treatment is initiated pre-hospitally. It is required the hospitalization in the intensive care unit. Depending on the treatment of the opportunistic diseases, the treatment of the hypertensive crisis may be different. The complications of hypertensive crisis include pulmonary edema, cerebral edema, acute ischemic stroke. The treatment also requires the bed rest and a favorable psychological climate. If the crisis continues for a long time, it is recommend the limited food intake (diet) (Antman and Sabatine).
The prognosis in the event of a complicated crisis is unfavorable. 1% of patients with chronic hypertension suffer from a hypertensive crisis. Once a crisis has developed, it has a tendency to relapse (Antman and Sabatine). Prevention of crisis includes the avoiding of alcohol use. Alcohol and many cardiovascular medications are incompatible: the action of the drug is reduced, therefore protection is also reduced. It is known that the cigarette smoking causes the increase in blood pressure, accelerates the development of atherosclerosis, increases the heart rate and reduces the content of oxygen in the blood. Swimming, morning gymnastics, skiing, skating, biking, walks daily for 40 minutes in the fresh air tone up the body and restore the health of patients with the hypertensive crisis.
Antman, Elliott M, and Marc S Sabatine. Cardiovascular Therapeutics. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier/Saunders, 2013. Print.