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Therapies In Parkinsons Disease: Neurology

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Therapies In Parkinsons Disease: Neurology Question: Describe about the Therapies In Parkinsons Disease for Neurology?   Answer: 1: The primary impairments of body function associated with Keith who has been diagnosed with Hoehn and Yahr stage III Parkinson’s disease include bradykinesia and postural instability. Bradykinesia is characterized by slow body movement with decreased trunk rotation and arm swing. Though Keith is being able to live an independent life, deformities in body movements are observed when he attempted to start a walk. While walking it has been observed that his step lengths are reduced and there is unsteadiness increased while walking with head rotations. Postural instability is noticed as he always tends to lean forward while standing to have a moderate fear of falling. In addition to the primary impairments, the secondary impairments include mild cognitive changes associated with slower thinking, complex instructions, and memory loss. Though the cognitive deformities are not severe as the activities with which Keith remains associated are not severely affected. 2: The two standardized test that can be implemented in the physical therapy evaluation of the Parkinson disease includes Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) and Forward Functional Reach test (FFR). The UPDRS test is primarily used for measuring the functional impairments associated with the disease and the FFR test is used for identifying the effect of the disease on the various activities of the body (Janlovic & Poewe, 2012). The UPDRS method is developed for assessing the severity of the disease will help in monitoring the  mood, behavior and the  daily life activities  of the patient. It also includes the motor examination which primarily helps in identifying the degree of physical impairment associated with the patient. The measurements are recorded with the help of a scale ranging from value 0 to 4, where 0 represents “ no impairment” and 4 represents “ severe impairment”. The Forward Reach (FFR) helps  in measuring the functional activity in people with the disabilities. The measurements help in identifying the secondary impairments associated with the Parkinson disease (Janlovic & Poewe, 2012). 3: The two primary goals  associated for patients diagnosed with stage III Parkinson includes Minimizing the progression and the effects of the symptoms associated with the disease in order to prevent the development of secondary problems and complications To prevent the development of deformities for maintaining the patient’s functional abilities. Minimizing the deformities in patients with Parkinson’s disease requires proper medications which include use of commonly prescribed drugs such as Azilect, Sinemet, Artane, Neupro etc. If the patient reacts adversely to the prescribed medication then surgery is advised. Depending upon the needs, the surgery procedure includes may include different techniques like the deep brain stimulation, gamma knife, pallidotomy, and thalamotomy (Fasano et al., 2012). In order to minimize the progression and the effects of the symptoms associated with the disease implementation of alternative therapy helps in treating the patient diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease. In recent days, Vitamin E is used as a medication for reversing the progression of the disease. In order to provide relief to the patients suffering from the disease, guided imagery and relaxation is also suggested to help with stress, depression and anxiety. The relaxation therapy also includes a detailed study of the patient’s history with effective support from the family members helps in implementing suitable care methods (Fasano et al., 2012).   The essential components of a well-written goal found in Shumway-Cook and Walcott Figure 6.2 ( Shumway-Cook & Woolacott, 2007) include Actor- the one who carries out the activity, usually the patient or the family member I referred to Behavior helps in providing the description of the activity Condition describes the circumstances under which the behavior is carried out Degree includes quantitative specification of performances such as quantification, rate of success etc Expected time which gives an idea about how long it will take to reach the goals. 4: Recommendation on the energy conservation technique includes proper planning and implementation of effective stratifies to reduce the energy expenditures. The patient needs to establish a proper routine and spend time on the more demanding times. He needs to spend time on self-care and rest. Adaptive equipment needs to be implemented to avoid bending or stretching. Recommendations also include the use of a wheelchair during transfer rather than using arms. The patient also needs proper avoid isometric contractions such as pulling and pushing that cause breath holding. The patient needs to perform some home exercise program which includes aerobic exercise  that helps in improving the cardiovascular endurance. The patient is recommended to perform yoga that helps in focusing on building endurance (Koopman et al., 2015). 5: A large number of conditions and complications are associated with C5-6 spinal cord injury (Freund et al., 2015). This includes:   Bladder Control- Change in bladder control is caused as the brain is not being able to control the bladder and thus the increase the risk of urinary tract infection increase which leads to kidney stones. Bowel control-Bowel controls often get disturbed due to injury in spinal cord leading to improper bowel movements. Circulatory control- C5-6 spinal cord injury causes a range of circulatory problems which includes a fall in blood pressure to swelling extremities Respiratory system- Injury leads to severe difficulty in breathing and a constant pain in the abdominal or the upper chest is observed. Sexual health- A variety of sexual function gets affected due to spinal cord injury which may lead to infertility.   References Jankovic, J., & Poewe, W. (2012). Therapies In Parkinson’s Disease. Current opinion in neurology, 25(4), 433-447. Fasano, A., Daniele, A., & Albanese, A. (2012). Treatment of motor and non-motor features of Parkinson’s disease with deep brain stimulation. The Lancet Neurology, 11(5), 429-442. Koopman, F. S., Beelen, A., Gilhus, N. E., de Visser, M., & Nollet, F. (2015). Treatment for postpolio syndrome. The Cochrane Library. Freund, P., Mohammadi, S., Weiskopf, N., & Curt, A. (2015). Spinal cord injury. Oxford Textbook of Neuroimaging, 315. Shumway-Cook, A., & Woolacott, M. (2007). Motor Control: Translating Research into Clinical Practice (3rd ed.). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

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