All your Writing needs covered

The Re-Emergence Of Black Lung Disease

Calculate the price
your order:

275 words
Approximate price
$ 0.00

The Re-Emergence Of Black Lung Disease Question: Discuss about the Causes for the Reemergence of Black lung Disease among Coal Mining Workers.     Answer: Introduction This essay discusses the possible causes for the reemergence of black lung disease among coal mining workers. It draws theory from different authors such as Quinlan and Hopkins to grasp a better understanding of the subject. Recent studies have shown that the rate of black lung disease after a long period of decline has started to resurface among coal mining workers. Black lung disease also referred to as chronic lung disease is a form of pneumoconiosis caused by coal dust or inhaling components of carbon like Graphite for an extended period (McIvor and Johnston 2016). Although there are different possible causes for the reemergence of black lung disease, safety measures when compiled together can prevent the disease from reoccurring. Causes For The Re-Emergence Of Black Lung Disease According to Quinlan (2014), data from the Health Resources and Service Administration has shown that the overall rate of black lung disease is much higher in places near coal mining areas. The numbers are high for the disease severity stages and attain statistical significance for the cases at the first stage and black lung disease combined in the stages. Finding also shows that black lung clinics are situated in regions of high recognized need, where mining is prevalent and risks of the disease are high (Laney et al., 2010).   Although researchers have not yet explained causes for the resurgence of black lung, “National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)” had listed some of the possible factors for the re- emergence of the same (CDC, 2012).  For example, longer working shifts. As per the centre for public integrity, miners are now working more than ten hours a week hence putting their life at risk. This implies that the more you work, the higher chances you expose yourself to the dust and the fewer chances of recovery when contracts the disease. Finkelman et al., (2002) holds that coal workers are taking advantage of working overtime hours to earn more compared to the regular pay, yet they do not understand that they expose themselves to a chronic respiratory disease that is difficult to treat. Prolonged exposure to tiny dust particulates and silica is another possible factor that could have led to the re-emergence of black lung diseases (Hendryx and Ahern, 2008). Due to thirst for new coal sources, a vast number of mining companies are mining shallow as well as thinner coal seams which are covered by much rock. Unfortunately, dust from these rocks penetrates into the worker’s lungs. Moreover, powerful and modern mining equipment creates finer particulates which are very dangerous when inhaled as Petsonk et al., (2013) holds. Outright cheating is another factor where a vast number of mining companies have falsified their air quality test results. Failing a test means a down time for the company until a point when the level of coal dust reaches much safer levels. The downtime implies a massive loss for the company which is the same as falsifying medical records plus time sheets (Rason, 2000). Missed opportunities by the mining workers to go for screening can be another contributing factor to the prevalence of black lungs among coal workers. According to Suatharna et al., (2007) this happens when an operator fails to allocate time to go for early treatment hence living with the condition. Ideally, mining workers should take action to reduce dust exposure and prevent the number of deaths as a result of black lung diseases. Poor  disease prevention strategies to allow shifts in the mining sector brought by the scarcity of richer coal reserves is another possible factor that could have led to the prevalence of coal disease among the mining workers. An example of these shifts includes “thin-seam mining’ by cutting the ‘adjacent silica containing rock” (Quinlan et al., 2010).  Also, there has not been a clear solution on how black lung can be prevented. Majority of the victims of black lung are trying to bind the issue as well as understand how critical the disease is. However, working to solve some of the mysteries behind the disease can be the starting point to coming up with the solutions to black lung disease.   Quinlan Approach To Explaining Death And Disasters As Quinlan (2014) postulates, creating productive bonuses in higher risk activities does not correlate to the maintenance of safety of the highest level. However, the mining sector is strongly embedded to such schemes. Quinlan further argues that sticking to unsafe practices detracts from some of the significant safety deficiencies at the mining areas such as the type of ventilation, the mining techniques employed as well as the failure to provide second egress from the mines. As noted in his book “Ten pathways to death and disaster” Quinlan holds that there are pattern causes that reoccur in mining disasters due to failures and flaws in the work stations. Although black lung is a prevalent disaster experienced by coal workers in the coal mining sector, we can use Quinlan theory to explain the reoccurrence of death and disasters in the mining work places. In his book, Quinlan asks critical questions about death and mining. Some of the questions include; what lessons can be learnt from mining deaths and disasters and what conclusion do the mine workers draw from these events? And are the key causes of disasters in the mining areas much different from those caused by two or more fatalities? To answer these questions Quinlan analyses fatal incidents as well as mine disasters in five different developed nations since 1992. The analysis finds that there is a leading pattern that causes recur in the events. Some of the possible causes identified are explained below.   Failure to observe warning signs; Quinlan holds that the point of concern for those who design and implement the OHS management is the inability to learn from previous mistakes where poor auditing systems, routine risks as well as the preoccupation with personal safety have led to the failure of the OHS management systems. Poor risk assessment; ability of workers to risk access the next work environment is vital but not a replacement for the safer system of the work or comprehensive evaluation at the organization levels. Failure in regulatory oversight is another flaw addressed by Quinlan. The regulatory failures in the work place may include inadequacies’ or omissions in the safety legislation, complex work arrangements and logistic constraints. In chapter four of the book, Quinlan investigates whether the patterns discussed in the previous section apply to fatal accident in other different workplaces. He extends his analysis to find whether similar patterns could be sought in other industries other than mining and then concludes that enough proof exists suggesting a call for recognition. The pattern deficiencies are not only found in the mining sector, but can also be sought in different workplace disaster areas such as oil rig explosions, shipping disasters, and aircraft crashes among others (Quinlan et al., 2010). Still, the examination gives no proof for other explanations of mine safety especially that focus on complex technology, behavior and culture. It is also explained in the write up why repeating causes are resistant to intervention by the government and also gives the cases where lessons have been drawn.  At the conclusion of his book, Quinlan (2014) postulates that safety practices in the work places and mine areas are not as a result of culture within that work area as much as the result of risk taking and poor supervision that was allowed by the management and others affects the production pressure as well as incentives. Hopkins Approach To Explaining The Organizational Causes Of Disasters In another book, “The organizational causes of disasters,” the author Hopkins (2007) argues that safety in the work area is an element of great significance to the business managers and the OHS in a work place. Although the matters of culture, safety and risk are of great importance, they are not adequately understood. The author focuses on the issues mentioned above in an informative manner that will inform organizations and companies as well as help them create a better environment for the clients and employers as well as to prevent risk. The first three sections of the book call for development of risk awareness where one part entails a discussion of the organizational culture, the second part analysis of how organization culture impacts safety and part three a case study of how safety and organizational culture played each other.   The Best Approach To Explaining Death And Disaster Quinlan theory is the best suited approach in explaining death and disaster in this write-up. The author identifies the possible causes he sees as recurring in the mining as well as other workplace disaster areas across five most developed nations. Most interestingly, the author hardly finds any proof to support miner’s behavior as a leading cause of such disasters. Quinlan is much well put to respond on these matters.  He was engaged in labor department in New Zealand to prepare reports on mine safety among miners in the event of “pike river coal mine explosion” that killed over 20 miners in New Zealand. Moreover, he was appointed to investigate the fatal rock fall as well as entrapment of the coal miners in Tasmania. Most interestingly, he featured in 2010 by work standards Tasmania to audit the Tasmania miner’s inspectorate. Therefore, Quinlan theory is the best-suited approach that can be used in this essay to explain death and disasters in the workplace places like mining areas. Conclusion As witnessed in the excerpt above, ‘coal workers pneumoconiosis’ or ‘black lung’ is a chronic disease caused by long exposure to coal dust. Although the disease had vanished many years ago, it has recently resurfaced in most parts of the world among coal mining workers. No actual research has yet been done to examine the possible causes for the resurgence, but it is evident that prolonged exposure to coal dust is one of the contributing factors to the diseases. Following the resurgence of the disease in the recent past, those working in the coal mining industries should be screened first to determine whether they have contracted the disease and those already victims seek treatment.   References Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2012. Pneumoconiosis and advanced occupational lung disease among surface coal miners–16 states, 2010-2011. MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report, 61(23), p.431. Finkelman, R.B., Orem, W., Castranova, V., Tatu, C.A., Belkin, H.E., Zheng, B., Lerch, H.E., Maharaj, S.V. and Bates, A.L., 2002. Health impacts of coal and coal use: possible solutions. International Journal of Coal Geology, 50(1), pp.425-443. Hendryx, M. and Ahern, M.M., 2008. Relations between health indicators and residential proximity to coal mining in West Virginia. American journal of public health, 98(4), pp.669-671. Hopkins, B., 2007. Safety, Culture and Risk. The Organisational Causes of Disasters. Health Sociology Review, 16(3-4), pp.344-346 Laney, A.S., Petsonk, E.L. and Attfield, M.D., 2010. Pneumoconiosis among underground bituminous coal miners in the United States: is silicosis becoming more frequent?. Occupational and environmental medicine, 67(10), pp.652-656. McIvor, A. and Johnston, R., 2016. Miners’ lung: a history of dust disease in British coal mining. Routledge. Petsonk, E.L., Rose, C. and Cohen, R., 2013. Coal mine dust lung disease. New lessons from an old exposure. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine, 187(11), pp.1178-1185. Quinlan, M., 2014. Ten pathways to death and disaster: learning from fatal incidents in mines and other high hazard workplaces. Sydney: Federation Press. Quinlan, M., Bohle, P. and Lamm, F., 2010. Managing occupational health and safety. Palgrave Macmillan. Reason, J., 2000. Human error: models and management. BMJ: British Medical Journal, 320(7237), p.768. Robson, L.S., Clarke, J.A., Cullen, K., Bielecky, A., Severin, C., Bigelow, P.L., Irvin, E., Culyer, A. and Mahood, Q., 2007. The effectiveness of occupational health and safety management system interventions: a systematic review. Safety Science, 45(3), pp.329-353. Suarthana, E., Laney, A.S., Storey, E., Hale, J.M. and Attfield, M.D., 2011. Coal workers’ pneumoconiosis in the United States: regional differences 40 years after implementation of the 1969 Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act. Occupational and environmental medicine, pp.oem-2010.

Basic features

  • Free title page and bibliography
  • Unlimited revisions
  • Plagiarism-free guarantee
  • Money-back guarantee
  • 24/7 support

On-demand options

  • Writer's samples
  • Part-by-part delivery
  • Overnight delivery
  • Copies of used sources
  • Expert Proofreading

Paper format

  • 275 words per page
  • 12pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, CHicago/Turabian, Havard)

Guaranteed originality

We guarantee 0% plagiarism! Our orders are custom made from scratch. Our team is dedicated to providing you academic papers with zero traces of plagiarism.

Affordable prices

We know how hard it is to pay the bills while being in college, which is why our rates are extremely affordable and within your budget. You will not find any other company that provides the same quality of work for such affordable prices.

Best experts

Our writer are the crème de la crème of the essay writing industry. They are highly qualified in their field of expertise and have extensive experience when it comes to research papers, term essays or any other academic assignment that you may be given!

Calculate the price of your order

You will get a personal manager and a discount.
We'll send you the first draft for approval by at
Total price:

Expert paper writers are just a few clicks away

Place an order in 3 easy steps. Takes less than 5 mins.

error: Content is protected !!
Open chat
Need Homework Help? Let's Chat
Need Help With Your Assignment? Lets Talk