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Solid Waste Management Question: Write an essay about the “Solid Waste Management”.    Answer: Introduction Solid Waste Management (SWM) is one of the basic necessary services that are presented by the municipal authorities within the country to maintain the urban centers clean. The wastes are littered all over the country to unsanitary living conditions. The laws from the municipal corporation govern the urban local bodies that do not have enough requirements in order to compact with the ever-growing solid waste management. With the rapid urbanization, the situation also becomes critical (White, Dranke and Hindle 2012). Generation of the Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) has an understandable relation to the inhabitants of the area due to which the larger cities in order to produce more wastes. Among all the Indian cities, Kolkata generates the largest quantity of MSW. The report is based on the municipal solid waste management strategy of India to conquer with the problems, issues as well as future challenges. It reflects on implementing a strategic planning framework for the solid waste management. It discusses the strategic vision, scope plan, objectives as well as targets of the solid waste management plan. The report also reflects on identifying as well as evaluating options for waste collection as well as recycling. Finally, an action plan is prepared to evaluate the options for the solid waste management.  1.0 Establishing Strategic Planning Framework 1.1 Existing Strategic Planning Framework In the strategic planning framework, all the stakeholders are committed to as well as with which they feel engaged. The strategic plan for the SWM is designed in order to address the issues over longer term planning the horizon that is common in most of the countries. It means within the period of 10-20 years that allows for the construction as well as payback of investment within the infrastructure of the waste management as well as equipment (Kaushika et al. 2016). For the action plan, a period of 5 years is established with an immediate action plan that gives the detailed requirements over one to two years. There is a collaborative partnership between the PMC as well as SWaCH was established on the premise that the SWaCH is not contracted agency, but it implements a sustainable SWM inside the countries. The agency is responsible for collecting the segregated waste from the households, institutes as well as commercial establishments to deposit those wastes at designated locations or in the collection vehicles of PMC.  In India, the Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) is governed by the MSWM where a majority of the Urban Local Bodies (ULB) do not have the proper action plans to execute as well as enhancement of the MSWM. None of the cities of India is claimed that they are 100 percent segregation of waste at the dwelling unit. On the average, only 70 percent of the waste collection is to observe, whereas 30 percent is mixed up within the urban environment. After collection of the total waste, 12.45 percent of the waste is processed as well as remaining is disposed into the open dumps. Environmental friendliness, an effectiveness of cost as well as acceptability is considered into the local community to achieve an efficient solid waste management system for India. 1.2 Strategic Vision The strategic vision of the SWM plan is to diminish the amount of the waste by promoting the public as well as corporate responsibilities. It recovers the waste for its highest as well as best use of the solid waste collection services. The vision is to transform the business from burying the wastes in order to utilize the waste as a resource (Guerrero, Maas and Hogland 2013). It also eliminates the needs for the landfills. The main vision of this strategic plan is to focus as well as help in allocating the resources. The strategic objectives promote the vision of the country that helps to put the core values into the practice. The strategic visions of India are as follows: Funding as well as implementing 75 percent of the waste from the landfills Increasing the access of the public, involvement as well as awareness of the activities of the municipal authorities Reducing the costs as well as improve the activities of the municipal Promoting as well as maintain a high performance, flexible as well as efficient workforce 1.3 Scope Of The Plan The scope of the solid waste management plan is to focus on a variety of options that are obtainable for the disposal of the municipal solid waste and to provide with recognized image to suitability to India (Potdar et al. 2015). This plan gives a waste quantification assessment that analyzes with the existing waste management situations. It also assesses with the institutional framework as well as resources those are available (Marshall and Farahbakhsh 2013). The plan is helpful to understand the role of the stakeholders at various levels of the SWM plan. The scope of this study is to prepare a plan for the disposal on the land such as it should be environmental safety as well as sustainable disposal within the landfills. 1.4 Objectives And Targets The objectives of the strategic solid waste management plan are as follows: To manage huge quality of municipal solid wastes, those are generated by the individuals of India To give a holistic approach to the waste streams and maximize the benefits of waste collection, disposal, recycling as well as treatment To ensure a safe disposal of the waste as well as treating the waste as per the Municipal Waste Management To provide with quality urban environment by the technique of proficient solid waste management To reduce the pollution of air due to bad odor of the solid wastes To promote awareness of the public, private partnership as well as involvement of the stakeholders to implement the solid waste management plan In order to reach the primary goals, it is required to avoid the waste needs a reduction in the generation of the waste. The countries should have few levers to manage the quantity of the waste generated. Therefore, a goal for the waste reduction is one of the communities responsible for meeting the objectives of the solid waste management plan (Srivastava et al. 2015). The solid waste management plan sets the targets for India to decrease the quantity of the generated wastes per capita in the area; it is calculated to roll 5-year average to 75 percent or less of 2010 volumes by the year 2020. In order to maximize the reuse, material recovery as well as recycling, the second target is to raise the diverse regional rate from the average of 55 percent to least of 70 percent by 2015 and targets to achieve 80 percent by the year 2020. Therefore, in order to convene the objectives of the SWM plan, the targets mentioned above should be considered.    2.0 Identification And Evaluation 2.1 Institutional Framework The Ministry of the Environmental & Forest with MSW rules created the framework for management of the MSW within the urban areas (Srivastava et al. 2015). The MSW rules have set the responsibilities of the state government as well as Central & State pollution control boards for various aspects of the management of MSW. With the MSW rules, the government is responsible for implementing as well as a development of the infrastructure relates to storage, transportation, disposal of the solid wastages in order to avoid littering (Paris 2016). Urban Local Bodies (ULB) is necessary to organize awareness programs among the segregation of the wastes as well as a promotion of the recycling. The authorities of the municipal require undertaking a phased program in order to make sure the participation of the community within the waste segregation. In order to meet these requirements, regular meetings are conducted on the quarterly basis that is arranged by the municipal authorities (Abas and Wee 2015). The areas those are falling under the jurisdiction of the development authorities such as Delhi Development Authority as well as Hyderabad Urban Development Authority. Those development authorities are required to identify the landfill sites as well as hand them to the municipal authority for the purpose of development, operations as well as maintenance (Soltani, et al. 2015). The state board is mandated in order to observe the compliance of the standards such as compost the quality, ground water, ambient air consisting of the incineration standards. The Central Pollution Control Board has the responsibility to organize with the State Pollution Control Boards as well as Committees with a suggestion to implementation, evaluation of the standards, compliance data as well as guidelines. Figure 1: Institutional Framework for MSW Management (Source: Abas and Wee 2015, pp-5) 2.2 Waste Collection And Recycling   Figure 2: Share of states and union territories in urban Municipal Solid Waste generated (Source: Williams and Kumar 2016, pp-16)  From the above diagram, it is seen that the Northern India generates the highest amount of MSW that is 30 percent of all the MSW generated within India. In the Eastern India, it generates least that is 17 percent of the MSW generated within India. Among the union territories, Delhi generates highest, as well as Chandigarh, generates the second amount of highest waste in India. The municipal solid waste collection, as well as recycling, is good quality waste management services (Williams and Kumar 2016). With the vehicle that disposes of the waste has a collection of operating costs of 50 percent of the overall municipal budgets as well as cost collection that have a focus on the solid waste management planning (Qdais and Alshraideh 2016). Within the planned areas of the city, the wastes are collected from the households, institutions, as well as industries, are the private sectors as well as those are taken directly to the Puhu dump. The areas where the access to the collection vehicle is impractical, then the wastes those are collected are taken to the neighborhood collection sites by the handcart for the purpose of bulking as well as informal recovery of a resource before the transportation to the Pugu (Zorpas, et al. 2015). The areas where the waste collection service is poor, the individuals dump those wastes into the drainage, streams as well as by the roadside. It is estimated to total upwards of around 60 percent of the entire waste stream.  Informal recycling is to be studied as an essential part of the solid waste management considers its effectiveness of recycling the waste as well as robust of a collection as well as supply chain within the Indian cities (Chang 2015). The concept of the informal recycling is recognized as well as gained a wider consensus in the world of its role of solid waste management within the middle as well as low-income nations. Resource Description Framework, as well as Water treatment facilities, are selected based on its probable to redirect the wastes from the landfill (Ludwig, Hellweg and Stucki 2012). It has the probable to produce energy from the residual mixed wastes. 2.3 Waste Treatment And Disposal Most of the cities of India have the unscientific disposal of the MSW. The established waste treatment technology is landfill. The landfill is continued to be an accepted practice in India, though the metropolitan centers such as Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai as well as Kolkata have the limited availability of the land for the disposal of waste as well as designated landfill sites to run beyond their capacity (Srivastava et al. 2015). The expansion of the landfill is done in some of the states of India. According to the Central Pollution Control Board, until date, India constructed 59 of the landfill sites and much more are under the planning as well as implementation stages and those sites should be used in the future (Williams 2013). The waste treatment technologies for the SWM includes the interaction with the heat recovery as well as waste gas cleaning as well as compositing, but the technologies were subject either by the hazardous emissions as well as failure to eliminate the heavy metals, landfill operators by the waste management economics.    2.4 Financial Sustainability In order to provide with a better SWM services, it also ensures financial sustainability of the system that maintains with main challenges within the cities of India. To achieve a proper waste management, wide ranges of tools as well as technologies exist (Achillas et al. 2013). However, the critical bottleneck is to pay for it. India has spent approximately 20 to 30 percent of their budgets on the solid waste management, yet they can provide services for less than half of their citizens. The major concern that lies with the sustainability within the sector requires greater effort in order to reduce, recycle, avoid as well as reuse the wastes. For this purpose, results-based financing for the Municipal Solid Waste apples a financing approach to the municipal solid waste sector (Sandhu, Burton and Dedekorkut-Howes 2016). It is an innovative development of the finance tool, which helps to ensure that the public funds are used efficiently. The benefits of this approach are as follows: Addressing the fundamental issues such as collection of fee as well as change in behavior toward recycling as well as source preparation of the organic waste Providing access to the basic services to the poor as well as reducing the impact of the uncollected as well as disposed wastes among the low-income residents (Rich and Bharti 2015). Increasing both accountabilities as well as transparency within the use of public funds through independent process of verification 2.5 Public Awareness And Participation In the recent years, public awareness, as well as public sector participation, is significant to improve the provisioning of the infrastructure of the solid waste services worldwide. From the present forecasted, it is assumed that the annual waste generation of the waste in India is increased to approximately 260 MT by the year 2047. The land required to dispose of the waste to raise in response to increasing within the generation of the waste (Yap and Nixon 2015). Therefore, the public awareness as well as participation requires such as strong technical support, adequate funding as well as appropriate legislation (Al-Khatib et al. 2015). As waste is the result of the human activities, therefore they require understanding the issues of waste management with the best waste management plan. The individuals declared that the main obstacles that stop the members of the public from taking energetic role into the waste management consist of deficiency of information on how as well as where the wastes should be disposed (Sadaf et al. 2016). The other barriers are an unwillingness of the public owing to wastes, lack of sufficient support from the government as well as other stakeholders and the poor regulations by the government. The public should understand the harmful effects of their behavior as well as realize about their roles as well as responsibilities. Therefore, the public is empowered with the knowledge as well as skills those are required to overcome with the solid waste disposal (Ravindra, Kaur and Mor 2015). Even motivation as well as interaction with the participants is required to exist among the parties.     The public awareness as well as their participation is required for the local waste division programs that will also develop the communication strategy to meet the following goals such as: It is required to increase the public awareness about the waste management issues as well as encouraging them by giving them proper information related to consumer tips to reduce the waste as well as reuse of materials (Ram and Kalidindi 2015). It is necessary to provide with access to materials, explaining the goals of waste diversion as well as responsibilities of the individuals to reduce the waste (Joshi and Ahmed 2016). It is most important to coordinate with the education activities to identify the cost-effective approaches to meet the goals, objectives as well as targets of the strategic plan.    3.0 Development Of Action Plan 3.1 Evaluation Of Options Most of the cities, as well as towns of India, are still littered with the garbage, and it gives an ugly look at the places (Ghosh and Nanda 2016). The waste those are collected is disposed in the landfills, and it ensures that the entire waste collected by the city as well as a town is processed as well as disposed of through a landfill. The wastes are classified as a non-recyclable that is converted into the useable product such that it the vision of zero land filling has been achieved. Therefore, an action plan is targeted for the management of MSW by the cities; otherwise, it will increase the quantities of the waste and have not required any such disposal as well as processing facilities, which creates un-healthy environmental conditions (Eiselt and Marianov 2015). Therefore, some of the options are evaluated to give a waste free or zero landfill environment to the public. The following are the options: Minimizing the waste generation Maximizing reuse, material recovery as well as recycling Recover of energy from the waste stream following the recycling of materials Disposal of waste in landfill following recycling of materials as well as energy recovery 3.2 Finalizing Strategic Plan Institutional structures, as well as financial outlays, are the key components that are required to implement a solid waste management plan (Xu et al. 2015). The institutional set up for the management of various waste streams is varied. It consists of generators, managers as well as regulators of the waste.  The following is the strategic plan that should be considered to provide with a waste free environment to Indian cities: Options Sl. No Strategies Actions taken Minimizing the waste generation 1 Advocate the senior governments to transfer the additional waste management responsibilities to the producers Strongly advocate programs to reduce waste disposal through the implementation of design for environment principles that focus on reducing waste reduction and recycling (Prashanthi and Sundaram 2016). Staffs supports are also required with a partnership with the Ministry of Environment.   2 Reducing the materials enter into the solid waste system  The local municipalities should introduce material bans.   3 Providing education on the option to reduce waste Social marketing program should be developed to educate the citizens on waste reduction (Suthar, Rayal and Ahada 2016). A community-based social marketing plan is developed to educate the businesses on it. Maximizing reuse, material recovery as well as recycling 1 Increasing the opportunities to reuse The municipal authorities should investigate the financial as well as regulatory barriers to prevent as well as discourage the reuse of the materials.    2 Increasing the efficiency of the existing recycling programs Implementation of disposal bans on the resources limits the chances to achieve reuse as well as recycling (Sekhon and Puri 2016).   3 Reduce paper and paperboard being disposed In collaboration with the municipalities as well as other non-profit organizations, a pilot program is conducted to determine an effective method to reduce unwanted wastes (Joshi and Ahmed 2016).   4 Targets the organics for recycling and energy recovery The authorities should establish organics processing facilities and establishment of a system to monitor emissions from the organics processing facilities. Recovery of energy from the waste stream following the recycling of resources 1 Using of waste to energy in order to provide electricity The municipalities improve the environmental performance of improved technologies as well as monitor performance in order to ensure compliance with regulations (Tozlu, Ozahi and Abusoglu 2016).  Disposal of waste in landfill after recycling of materials as well as energy recovery 1 The waste should be disposed of in an environmentally friendly manner. The governmental should work with the local municipality authorities to hold the residual waste flows at the landfill.      Establishing contingency disposal sites It is required to monitor the contingency disposal sites for the performance as well as compliance. Apart from the implementation of the strategic plan, the considerable efforts should be given to the public as well as other stakeholders to aware them of proper solid waste management. As waste is the property of the local authorities, therefore the implementation of the strategic plan in the local authority is the sole responsibility of them (Sadaf et al. 2016). However, other agencies should also extend their support as well as collaboration within the implementation of strategic plan. Before the implementation of the new strategic plan for India, the status of the solid waste management should be observed regarding the application of waste collection, disposal and recycling (Yap and Nixon 2015). If all the targets within the strategic plan should achieve, then a remarkable improvement has occurred and improves the waste management sectors in the areas such as recycling, collection, home composting as well as transportation.    3.3 Preparation Of The Immediate Action Plan The following is the immediate action plans that are taken by the government to assemble the targets of 75 percent waste diversion by the year 2020 as well as it will make sure that the proper environmental rules for the disposal of wastes are completely implemented within four years (Williams and Kumar 2016). The cost-effective achievement of those goals should require cooperation as well as a commitment to the stakeholders, governmental leadership as well as coordinated regional planning.   Activities Estimated Date of the Action Plan Resource recovery and regulations of the solid waste management   Release of the draft regulations for review of the public 02/06/2016 Regulations within effect 06/07/2016 Stewardship programs and industry agreements 12/08/2016 Deposit of the fund 20/09/2016 Plastics, lead acid, scrap tires, etc 25/10/2016 Governmental Waste Reduction Programs   Environment responsible for governmental procurement policy 30/11/2016 Governmental recycling program 07/12/2016 Disposal bans 16/04/2017 Regional cooperation   Delineating the regional boundaries 21/10/2017 Finalizing the guidelines of landfills 27/01/2018 Finalizing the guidelines for the construction management 04/11/2018 Developing as well as submitting draft to the regional solid waste management 25/03/2019 Submitting draft of resource recovery plans to the regional solid waste management 28/11/2019 Review as well as revise the regional plans 12/12/2019 Establishing the regional disposal facilities 26/12/2019 Strategic goals   Achieve 75 percent of the targets 07/03/2020 Meet with the new disposal standards 17/07/2020 Initiating the comprehensive review of the strategic plans 02/10/2020   Conclusion It is concluded that change within the current governance waste management In India is required. The local government is taking a leadership role to divert the waste from the landfill as well as ensures that the materials are going to the landfill so that the impacts on the health as well as the environment are minimized. With growing in population, complex waste streams, as well as expensive waste treatment options, are becoming the norm. The local government of each of the cities should seek a commitment from the state government in order to establish new governance structures for the solid waste management within the metropolitan areas. It is concluded that the reasons that result in low level of the waste management as well as recycling are deficient of incentives for the inhabitants, lack of recycling programs by the companies as well as government. When the overall cost of the waste management increases, then it gives benefits to improve the waste management will balance the costs. In addition to all these, major new opportunities for the economic development will give results from the implementation of the strategic plan of solid waste management. The government of India is dedicated to ensuring that the strategic plan keeps pace with the emerging recycling technologies as well as public participation to improve the SWM by carrying out a review of the strategic plan. In order to assemble the targets as well as objectives of the strategic plan, some of the options are assumed such as minimizing the waste generation and maximizing reuse, material recovery as well as recycling. Apart from this, other two options are recovering energy from the waste stream following the recycling of materials and disposal of waste in a landfill after recycling of materials as well as energy recovery.     References Abas, M.A. and Wee, S.T., 2015. AReview of the Factors that Influence the Good Governance Practices: An Insight towards Sustainable Solid Waste Management. International Journal of Conception on Management and Social Sciences, 3(2), pp.1-7. Achillas, C., Moussiopoulos, N., Karagiannidis, A., Banias, G. and Perkoulidis, G., 2013. The use of multi-criteria decision analysis to tackle waste management problems: a literature review. Waste Management & Research, 31(2), pp.115-129. Al-Khatib, I.A., Kontogianni, S., Nabaa, H.A. and Al-Sari, M.I., 2015. Public perception of hazardousness caused by current trends of municipal solid waste management. Waste Management, 36, pp.323-330. Chang, N.B., 2015. Sustainable Solid Waste Management: A Systems Engineering Approach. John Wiley & Sons. Eiselt, H.A. and Marianov, V., 2015. Location modeling for municipal solid waste facilities. Computers & Operations Research, 62, pp.305-315. Ghosh, S. and Nanda, S., 2016. 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