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Self-Management Of Parkinson Disease

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Self-Management Of Parkinson Disease Question: Identify the self management programmes that are developed for Parkinson’s disease.   Answer: Introduction Parkinson’s disease is a sensory system issue that advances with time. Parkinson’s disease affects the movement of the human body. Parkinson’s disease is a complex brain disorder. The disease gradually increases with time. The symptoms generally come at a very early stage of life. The point of this paper is to examine the self-management programmes that are developed for Parkinson’s disease to guide them in educating the confidence and skill in promotion of their health and happiness. The purpose of the programme is to outline the processes of self-management in order to help thorough interventions and recover health outcome for those with a persistent illness. Self-management programmes rooted within rehabilitation are hopeful. Self-management is an excellent term to employ (Lorig et al., 2014). It is a matter of getting patients to become more active in improving their symptoms by doing the health events like getting more sleep, eating good food and consuming their tablets on time. The following contents of the report will clarify the pathophysiology of the disease and the impact of the illness on their family and caretakers. Various health promotion activities are performed or taken into account to understand the chronic disease. Varieties of interventions are planned to support the self-management by the people who have Parkinson’s disease.   Discussion Causes And Pathophysiology Of The Disease: Parkinson’s is a neurological disorder which affects 4% of those over the age of 40 and 1% of those people over 65 years of age. The patient with Parkinson’s disease has two to six times the risk of dementia if it is compared to the general inhabitants. It is observed that 78% of the people with Parkinson’s disease have Parkinson’s disease amnesia (Postuma et al., 2015). History of head injury and exposure to the pesticides can cause the disease. The person who is a non-smoker or the person who remain abstain from the coffee beverages are also associated with the chance of having Parkinson’s disease. Low concentration of urate in the serum of the blood can cause the disease as well. In Parkinson’s disease, several nerve cells (which are known as the neurons) in the brain progressively collapse or die. Many of the symptoms, which occurred in the Parkinson ’s disease, are due to the failure of neurons that generates a chemical messenger in the brain (Schlesinger et al., 2015). The chemical messenger is recognized as the dopamine. When the dopamine level falls, it leads to the abnormal brain activity, and eventually, this leads to symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. An individual with a Parkinson’s disease has abnormally low levels of dopamine. The cells, which generate dopamine, are the known as the dopaminergic neurons, which is present in the substantia niagra part of the brain, have died gradually (Pagonabarraga et al., 2015). There is no exact reason that why these cells die. Researchers are still finding the cause. The patient will die with Parkinson’s disease but not from Parkinson’s disease. However, the symptoms worsen over time, which can cause lethal incidents in their life and eventually it leads to death. There are five significant pathways in the brain which connects to the other brain areas with the basal ganglia. All the channels are affected in the Parkinson’s disease, and their disruption is the leading cause of the symptoms. Drugs that are used for the treatment of the disease can generate extreme dopamine activity and eventually the motor systems will be activated at the wrong time, and it produces dyskinesias (Voon et al., 2017).   Impact Of The Disease On Individual And Family Members: The patient who has early Parkinson’s disease symptoms requires more emotional support. This is the right time that the family members should educate themselves on the disease. Recent studies show that the people who diagnosed with the disease, most of the people do not have family members. Often family members comment that affected person smiles less and appears disinterested in particular kind of activities, and eventually they fail to explain their feelings because they can’t be able to move their facial muscles (Nakae & Tsushima, 2014). The caregiver may face cognitive changes during the inception of the disease. The psychosocial burden and financial burden cause immense problems in the family. Depression of the patients can affect the family members as well. Self-Management On Parkinson’s Disease: Several self management-training programmes have been formed for the patients to gather confidence to encourage their happiness and health in the society. The collaborative management encourage the patient about the condition of his or her health. The skill to check one’s disease development and to take the plan to encourage health and decrease disability is referred to as self-management (Dwarswaard et al., 2016). A self-management program aims to educate the patients to take activities on a day-to-day basis that reduces the impact of Parkinson’s disease. Pathology and treatment protocols helped the patients to increase the patient’s understanding of the process of the disease. Eventually, it will help the patients to understand the disease, and it also teaches how to deal with the circumstances. Self-management of a disease involve observing the patient’s behaviour and attuning to the indicator of emotional and physiological health and distress. Inspection leads to the recognition of the problems, after which the goal setting and solution generation can take place. Self-management programmes teach in general about the issue solving strategies, and it also encourages the patients to implicate those strategies in their problems. Participants in the programs also learn to recognize the resources and support from their caregiver that will also permit them to maintain problem-solving outside the self-management program. A self-management programme ought to be founded on an empirically tested hypothesis that can manage endeavours to help individuals in investing new conduct and constructing a collection of versatile aptitudes (Heijmans et al., 2015). Self-management will be even more a test for individuals who live alone, who don’t have close family or companions, who are genuinely incapacitated or residing in mind or private homes. Having great social help is critical to empowering individuals to feel that they can endeavour to oversee parts of Parkinson’s past prescription and medical medication. Self-management practice occurs within the social surroundings. Informal community individuals, for example, mind accomplices, specialists, or companions can impact self-management practices through hands-on help with tasks, encouraging the environment for the practice of the self-management abilities, or offering verbal consolation or guidance for participating in self-administration practices. Besides, self-administration meditations may move people to search out the help they have to deal with their wellbeing condition (Smith et al., 2015)   Projects that intend to advance self-management of Parkinson’s disease should contain the following points: The members or the participants should be trained to observe the behaviour methodically. The members should be prepared to set measurable objectives. The members should be encouraged to assess conduct sensibly and utilize self-incentives. The skills and tasks should be practiced. The self-adequacy should be targeted. A group format is used. The family members and the caregivers should be included in the self-management programmes. General problem solving skills should be taught to the patients. The disease education should be included. Researchers should develop the following points to evaluate the Parkinson’s disease self-management programs (Hellqvistet al., 2018)- Illustrative model of how variables of medicine usage, symptoms strictness, ADL ability, motor impairment and excellence of life relate to the self-management programmes. Method of the member’s ability to watch conduct and to set the quantifiable objectives. Method of self-viability in relation to skills and tasks covered in the program. Method of relational skills with human services professionals. Measures of the patient’s fulfilment with and usage of social insurance administrations. Method of members’ awareness of Parkinson’s disease pathology Method of the member’s ability to simplify the problem-solving skills ahead of the self-management programmes. Health Promotion Activity Health promotion enhances the quality of life. Health promotion activity enables the patient to increase control over the health. Health promotion activity covers a wide range of environmental and social interferences that are programmed to profit and protect individual people’s health and quality of life.   A randomized controlled preliminary was performed to assess the viability of a wellbeing advancement program for the Parkinson’s disease treatment. PROPATH which is a health promotion program was considered to recover the health confidence, support and offer the information, and improvement of bodily functions throughout the workout and collaborative effort with the health takers to increase the therapeutic behaviour and fulfilment. The invention was send by mail with the evaluation questions which are completed by the patients or the carers at intervals of 0, 2, 4, 6 months. It is accompanied by the computer-based information and the personalised recommendations letters returned to the patients and their respective informations to their clinicians. It is observed that two hundred ninety patients finished the six month tryout in which one forty patients in the interference group and one fifty patients in control group got only questionnaires (van der Eijk., 2015). It was observed that the intervention group considerably improved the exercise techniques and it decreased “the time off” and the required “time off” percentage. Eventually, it condensed the side effects and cuts the summary scores of Parkinson’s ratings by 10%. Health promotion in Parkinson’s disease increases the chance of survival of patients. Health promotions provide a helpful attachment to therapeutic treatment of Parkinson’s disease, and on the contrary, it reduces the cost of the medications, and it improves the intermediate-term outcomes (Zucca et al., 2017). Cultural Safety And Empowerment Cultural safety requires incorporation of consciousness and understanding of others culturally related needs throughout the deliverance of health care. Lack of perceptive about the use of specific medicines or other cultural views pertaining to Parkinson’s disease will influence the value of care delivery (Richardson, Yarwood & Richardson, 2017). The patient having Parkinson’s disease are sometimes vulnerable, and that is the reason they should be present in an environment that is emotionally and spiritually safe, as well as physically safe for those people where there is no assault challenge is present.   Empowerment is where the patients perceive their part and their social insurance supplier to play out an undertaking, that perceives network and social contrasts and energizes quiet cooperation. The clinicians can help people with Parkinson’s by educating their patients about the disease discussing the clinical trials (Rovini et al., 2016). The goal of empowerment is to exhibit the technical viability and medicinal adequacy of customised administration and the care programmes for the Parkinson’s disease (Pasluosta et., 2015). With the view of the mix of helpful ICTSs, mHealth applications, wearable coordinated gadgets and cloud technologies which enable the patients to deal with their wellbeing and infection in participation with their recognized and casual parental figures, and with skilled restorative personnel through different care settings (Haluza, & Jungwirth, 2015). Newly customised administrations and care programmes ready to allow patients in the treatment and management of their illness in every stage as per their advances and to the level of their co-morbidities are required. The impact of Parkinson’s disease in the society as far as the prosperity and costs prompt the characterization of the illness. The model of a customized and unavoidable care framework is able to support the empowerment of the affected people in the administration of their healthy routine and the advancement of the national human service administrations.      Conclusion It can be concluded hereby Parkinson’s disease is a nervous system disorder that increases over time. Parkinson’s disease is identified by the postural instability and the motor symptoms of tremor. These symptoms occur due to the decreased production of the dopamine as the dopamine producing cells in the substantia niagra decreases. The capability in the self-management is a necessary skilfulness for the person with Parkinson’s disease. Similarly to the other chronic diseases, the patient who has Parkinson’s disease needs lifestyle modification to increase their physical fitness and to enhance the value of life. The health practitioners and caregivers are immensely helpful to serve the patients. Self-management programmes or the collaborative management programmes is an advance to the healthcare that is approachable to the needs of the persons with Parkinson’s disease. The self-management encourage the patient’s ability to improve their health with appropriate clinical interventions.  Incorporation of cloud technologies, mobile health applications and wearable services can present a practical solution to empower the patients to follow and manage a healthy lifestyle and to fight with the disease, in collaboration with the medical staff and caregivers across different care settings. In order to develop a healthy lifestyle targeted toward the home environment the performance of a telemedicine service is immensely helpful.   References Dwarswaard, J., Bakker, E. J., van Staa, A., & Boeije, H. R. (2016). Self?management support from the perspective of patients with a chronic condition: a thematic synthesis of qualitative studies. Health Expectations, 19(2), 194-208. Haluza, D., & Jungwirth, D. (2015). ICT and the future of health care: aspects of health promotion. International journal of medical informatics, 84(1), 48-57. Heijmans, M., Waverijn, G., Rademakers, J., van der Vaart, R., & Rijken, M. (2015). Functional, communicative and critical health literacy of chronic disease patients and their importance for self-management. Patient Education and Counseling, 98(1), 41-48. Hellqvist, C., Dizdar, N., Hagell, P., Berterö, C., & Sund Levander, M. (2018). Improving self?management for persons with Parkinson’s disease through education focusing on management of daily life: Patients’ and relatives’ experience of the Swedish National Parkinson School. Journal of clinical nursing. Lorig, K., Ritter, P. L., Pifer, C., & Werner, P. (2014). Effectiveness of the chronic disease self-management program for persons with a serious mental illness: a translation study. Community mental health journal, 50(1), 96-103. Nakae, H., & Tsushima, H. (2014). Effects of home exercise on physical function and activity in home care patients with Parkinson’s disease. Journal of physical therapy science, 26(11), 1701-1706. Pagonabarraga, J., Kulisevsky, J., Strafella, A. P., & Krack, P. (2015). Apathy in Parkinson’s disease: clinical features, neural substrates, diagnosis, and treatment. The Lancet Neurology, 14(5), 518-531. Pasluosta, C. F., Gassner, H., Winkler, J., Klucken, J., & Eskofier, B. M. (2015). An Emerging Era in the Management of Parkinson’s Disease: Wearable Technologies and the Internet of Things. IEEE J. Biomedical and Health Informatics, 19(6), 1873-1881. Postuma, R. B., Berg, D., Stern, M., Poewe, W., Olanow, C. W., Oertel, W., … & Halliday, G. (2015). MDS clinical diagnostic criteria for Parkinson’s disease. Movement Disorders, 30(12), 1591-1601. Richardson, A., Yarwood, J., & Richardson, S. (2017). Expressions of cultural safety in public health nursing practice. Nursing inquiry, 24(1), e12171. Rovini, E., Esposito, D., Maremmani, C., Bongioanni, P., & Cavallo, F. (2016). Empowering patients in self-management of Parkinson’s disease through cooperative ICT systems. In Optimizing Assistive Technologies for Aging Populations (pp. 251-277). IGI Global. Schlesinger, I., Eran, A., Sinai, A., Erikh, I., Nassar, M., Goldsher, D., & Zaaroor, M. (2015). MRI guided focused ultrasound thalamotomy for moderate-to-severe tremor in Parkinson’s disease. Parkinson’s Disease, 2015. Smith, R., Wu, K., Hart, T., Loane, C., Brooks, D. J., Björklund, A., … & Politis, M. (2015). The role of pallidal serotonergic function in Parkinson’s disease dyskinesias: a positron emission tomography study. Neurobiology of aging, 36(4), 1736-1742. van der Eijk, M., Nijhuis, F. A., Faber, M. J., & Bloem, B. R. (2015). Viewpoint on patient centeredness in Parkinson care. Patient-centered care, 29. Voon, V., Napier, T. C., Frank, M. J., Sgambato-Faure, V., Grace, A. A., Rodriguez-Oroz, M., … & Fernagut, P. O. (2017). Impulse control disorders and levodopa-induced dyskinesias in Parkinson’s disease: an update. The Lancet Neurology, 16(3), 238-250. Zucca, F. A., Segura-Aguilar, J., Ferrari, E., Muñoz, P., Paris, I., Sulzer, D., … & Zecca, L. (2017). Interactions of iron, dopamine and neuromelanin pathways in brain aging and Parkinson’s disease. Progress in neurobiology, 155, 96-119.

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