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Sara Haines Cushing Syndrome Case Study

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Sara Haines Cushing Syndrome Case Study 1.Explain the causative factors and pathophysiology of Cushing syndrome and how she developed this condition.   2.Describe the primary signs and symptoms of Cushing syndrome.     Answer: 1.Cushing syndrome develops when the human body exposed to huge levels of the hormone cortisol for an elongated period. Hypercortisolism is another name of Cushing syndrome. This can arise when the human body makes the excessive amount of cortisol. Adrenal glands produce the cortisol hormone, which controls the blood pressure and helps the cardiovascular system works correctly. This excessive amounts of cortisol hormone are responsible for Cushing syndrome (Nieman2015). Cushing syndrome occurs due to the overproduction of adrenocorticotropic hormone or ACTH by one or both adrenal glands, which generally controls the cortisol production. This ACTH excites the adrenal gland which also releases cortisol and additional steroid hormones (Lacroixet al., 2015). ACTH discharged in a diurnal pattern that is free of flowing levels of cortisol, crest discharge happens before just arousing, and the ACTH levels at that point decrease for the entire day (Carney et al., 2015). Even though the adenomas of Cushing’s infection emit extreme measures of ACTH, they usually keep several adverse criticism reactions to huge doses of glucocorticoids. Exotic sources of ACTH, generally inside the appearance of extracranial neoplasms, are usually not reactive to negative feedback with huge doses of glucocorticoids (Niemanet al., 2015). This separation is suitable for constructing the development of patients, with so-called hypercortisolism. Sara can develop her condition with the help of treatment. There are several treatments, like reduce the use of corticosteroid, under doctors’ supervision. Surgery is another technique which applied in case of a tumour, like a pituitary tumour, which is operated by the neurosurgeon. In case, if the doctors became unsuccessful in removing the cyst, then they apply the radiation technique, for further treatment.   2.According to Iacobone et al., (2015) symptoms and signs of Cushing syndrome depend on the concentrations of the higher amount of cortisol. There are some general symptoms and signs, results in growing obesity and also develops skin changes like: Increasing body weight and deposits of fats within the tissue, mainly in the middle region and back mostly in the upper portion, face and shoulder. “Moon Face” – an adjusted state of the face that creates from a particular example of fat dissemination (Prague, May & Whitelaw, 2013). There are some pink and purple elongated marks on the epidermis of the stomach, breast, thighs, and several regions of an arm. Easy bruising – the legs and arms are often covered with several bruises. Weaken, easily broken skin that bruises simply Slow development of wounds, infection due to bites of an insect. Spots on facial skin. “Buffalo hump” – a hill of fat at the base of the back of the neck. In the case of women, facial hair starts growing on their face. It also affects the menstrual cycle and results in irregular or absent condition. There are several other signs and symptoms are present like: Simple weakness. The weakness of body muscle. Sadness, concern, and irritability. Damage to sensitive control. Mental problems. High blood pressure. Loss of bone density, significant to breakages over time In offspring, diminished growth. When this signs and symptoms have arrived, individuals need to concern with their respective doctor for further treatment.   References: Carney, J. A., Lyssikatos, C., Lodish, M. B., & Stratakis, C. A. (2015). Germline PRKACA amplification leads to Cushing syndrome caused by 3 adrenocortical pathologic phenotypes. Human pathology, 46(1), 40-49. Iacobone, M., Citton, M., Scarpa, M., Viel, G., Boscaro, M., & Nitti, D. (2015). Systematic review of surgical treatment of subclinical Cushing’s syndrome. British Journal of Surgery, 102(4), 318-330. Lacroix, A., Feelders, R. A., Stratakis, C. A., & Nieman, L. K. (2015). Cushing’s syndrome. The lancet, 386(9996), 913-927. Nieman, L. K. (2015). Cushing’s syndrome: update on signs, symptoms and biochemical screening. European journal of endocrinology, 173(4), M33-M38. Nieman, L. K., Biller, B. M., Findling, J. W., Murad, M. H., Newell-Price, J., Savage, M. O., &Tabarin, A. (2015). Treatment of Cushing’s syndrome: an endocrine society clinical practice guideline. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 100(8), 2807-2831. Prague, J. K., May, S., & Whitelaw, B. C. (2013). Cushing’s syndrome. Bmj, 346, f945

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