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Processed Meat Carcinogenic To Humans

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Processed Meat Carcinogenic To Humans Question: Discuss about the Processed Meat Carcinogenic to Humans.     Answer: Introduction Carcinogens are the foreign toxic substances that due to exposure, alter a body’s DNA causing cancer. The pathways of exposure to the carcinogenic substances are wide, like the pollution, workplace exposure, household exposure, lifestyle factors, exposure to naturally occurring carcinogens, medical treatment. Carcinogens although cause cancer through direct exposure, these carcinogens also follow indirect pathways which do not alter the DNA but cause cancer only after elongated levels of exposure (Jacob et al., 2013). Carcinogens are also considered as toxic substances which have harmful effect on the body. The report is based on the recent announcement of International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) that processed meat are carcinogenic to humans. The report further emphasizes on an article which analyzed and supported the finding of IARC. Epidemiological Evidences The study of the 14 cohorts revealed the development of colorectal cancer with the consumption of red meat. The supporting evidences were inferred from the 6 controlled studies. Meta-analysis of the colorectal cancer from the 10 cohort studies revealed a positive relationship between the dose and response (Larsson & Wolk, 2012). The data showed an increased risk of 17% for every 100 gram of everyday red meat consumption and an increased risk of 18% for everyday consumption of 50 gram of processed meat. Studies done in the European countries, Sweden and Australia were categorized as cohorts. Among the 15 cohort studies, 7 reported confirm associations with the colorectal cancer, and the positive associations were based on the consumption of the processed meat. Data also revealed positive associations with 15 different types of cancer, due to the consumption of the red meat an increased incidence of prostrate and pancreas cancer while the consumption of the processed meat revealed and increased incidence of stomach cancer (Bouvard et al., 2015). Epidemiological Study The studies were focused on 800 epidemiological studies which emphasized on the incidence of cancer in relation with the consumption of the processed meat and red meat. The test subjects belonged from several continents, diets and ethnicities. For the purpose of evaluation, cohort studies were conducted among the general population. The population based cohort studies revealed more high quality data and additional evidence. The studies that considered red meat and processed meat separately revealed more informative datasets (Bouvard et al., 2015).   Processed Meat And Cancer International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) did considered the association of the incidence of cancer due to the consumption of processed meat. The reasons cited by the IARC for the association are as follows: In comparison to the red meat which undergoes moderation due to cooking, the processed meat undergoes alteration through curing, smoking, salting, fermentation and several other processes that enhances the flavor and preservation over time (Zhu et al., 2013). Most processed meat contains beef and pork, but also contains other different types of red meat, offal, poultry or even the byproducts of meat, like blood. Red meat has high value proteins, micronutrients and vitamin B, zinc and iron. While the fat content of the meat also varies depending on the age, sex of the animal species. Such red meat after processing like smoking and curing results in the formation of N-nitroso- compounds (NOC), carcinogenic chemicals and poly cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) (Kim et al., 2013). Although cooking enhances the palatability and digestibility of the meat, but due to overcooking and high temperature cooking, several toxic compounds generate like the Poly cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAA). The worst part is that, grilling, pan frying and barbecuing produces more of these toxic chemicals (ur Rahman et al., 2014). Self-Reflection  No, these findings cannot change my consumption of the processed meat because, there are plenty of health benefits related to meat consumption. Meat contains a large amount of protein. A person who relies on natural protein needs to consume meat to suffice his regular protein needs. Protein helps in the buildup of body muscles and improves the overall maintenance of good health condition. Protein effectively repairs the damaged tissues and helps in the recovery. The other major benefit of protein is that it helps in the production of antibiotics which aids in the defense of the body against the several bacterial infections which eventually strengthens the immune system of the body. The most vital part is that as meat contains all the essential amino acids, meat is considered as one the best sources of protein (Pereira & Vicente, 2013). Among the several nutrients that meat contains, selenium, zinc and iron are extensively found. Iron helps in hemoglobin formation that helps in the oxygen transport, zinc helps in metabolism and tissue formation, and selenium helps in the breakdown of fat and other chemicals in the body (Binnie et al., 2014). Vitamins like A, B, D are major needed for the body to maintain good vision, strengthen the bones and teeth. While vitamins also aid in the proper functioning of the central nervous system and maintains the mental health. All the three vital vitamins are found in meat which deliver these benefits when consumed (Pereira & Vicente, 2013). Conclusion Therefore, to conclude from the above disclosure, the consumption of red meat and processed is strictly designated as harmful for health. The consumption has carcinogenic effect which lead to the development of several cancers, such as colorectal cancer, prostate cancer, cancer of pancreas and stomach cancer. Among all of these cancers, the incidence of colorectal cancer is majorly found among the persons who consume processed. The several harmful, toxic substances that emanate due to the cooking the red meat on high temperature are Poly cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAA). Such chemicals are not only harmful for the body; they have the potential to cause cancer. Although, there are several benefits associated with the consumption of the meat, such benefits often negate the carcinogenic effect of meat. Thus, further research needs to done in order to promote and strengthen the harmful effects of red meat and processed meat consumption   References Binnie, M. A., Barlow, K., Johnson, V., & Harrison, C. (2014). Red meats: Time for a paradigm shift in dietary advice. Meat science, 98(3), 445-451. Bouvard, V., Loomis, D., Guyton, K. Z., Grosse, Y., El Ghissassi, F., Benbrahim-Tallaa, L., … & Straif, K. (2015). Carcinogenicity of consumption of red and processed meat. The Lancet Oncology, 16(16), 1599-1600. Jacob, P., Raddaha, A. H. A., Dempsey, D., Havel, C., Peng, M., Yu, L., & Benowitz, N. L. (2013). Comparison of nicotine and carcinogen exposure with water pipe and cigarette smoking. Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention Biomarkers, 22(5), 765-772. Kim, K. H., Jahan, S. A., Kabir, E., & Brown, R. J. (2013). A review of airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their human health effects. Environment international, 60, 71-80. Larsson, S. C., & Wolk, A. (2012). Red and processed meat consumption and risk of pancreatic cancer: meta-analysis of prospective studies. British journal of cancer, 106(3), 603-607. Pereira, P. M. D. C. C., & Vicente, A. F. D. R. B. (2013). Meat nutritional composition and nutritive role in the human diet. Meat Science, 93(3), 586-592. ur Rahman, U., Sahar, A., Khan, M. I., & Nadeem, M. (2014). Production of heterocyclic aromatic amines in meat: Chemistry, health risks and inhibition. A review. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 59(1), 229-233. Zhu, H., Yang, X., Zhang, C., Zhu, C., Tao, G., Zhao, L., … & Qin, Q. (2013). Red and processed meat intake is associated with higher gastric cancer risk: a meta-analysis of epidemiological observational studies. PloS one, 8(8), e70955

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