All your Writing needs covered

Population Health And The Environment

Calculate the price
your order:

275 words
Approximate price
$ 0.00

Population Health And The Environment Question: Discuss about the Population Health and the Environment?   Answer: Methods Of Science And Research Used In The Study Of Environmental Health Scientific methods used for the study of environmental health include quantitative methods which include analysis based on mathematical-statistical models of numeric data as well as qualitative methods which comprise of analysis of texts, participatory approaches and interpretive procedures for comprehending. The first type of research on environmental health that is commonly observed is the health study of a community, which includes studying the environmental health hazards by directly investigating them. Scientists typically collaborate with epidemiologists in this type of a study. The main task of such researchers is hazard characterization, exposure quantification, as well as identification of deleterious effects on health. To a great extent, community collaboration is involved in this epidemiological research (Quigley et al. 2000). Some other techniques include focus groups, structured interviewing, policy analysis, content analysis of documents and media analysis. The effects of environmental hazards on health, including radiation, air particulates, high voltage lines and chemicals are studied by environmental epidemiology. Research in environmental justice includes measurement of class and discrepancies in diseases and in exposure to environmental hazards. Ways Scientists And Researchers Evaluate The Level Of The Danger Environmental Hazards Have On Population Health Exposure to several chemicals from environmental sources such as water and air pollutants, cleaning products, pesticides and food additives is experienced by every individual on a daily basis. Most of of these chemicals are hazardous to human health; however ascertaining exposures as well as deciding the risk levels they pose is a meticulous procedure. Some contaminants have been confirmed to have injurious affects on a range of human organs, for example the respiratory or the reproductive systems, as well as cause impairment in certain vital functions such as the development of the foetus. On the basis of proof from various studies such as ecological, epidemiological and toxicological, health experts suppose a lot other chemicals that are probable hazards to individuals. Risk assessment is the method of setting up hazards to the environment as well as individuals from radiation, technologies, chemicals or other agents and contaminants which may influence welfare and health. It’s a branch of a broader method known as risk analysis that also involves policy development to risk management once they are recognized as well as measured. Assessments of exposures explain how regularly contact happens, its lasting time period, and its strength (which means how much the contaminant is concentrated), as well as the path by which they penetrate the body. Estimating delivered doses is central to exposure assessment as the delivered dose is the measurement most directly linked to expected damages due to exposure. The most general processes are by means of PBPK (Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic) models or measuring blood concentrations. This method replicates the course of time of the concentration of tissue that is contaminated in individuals by separating the body into a series of sections on the basis of how rapidly they absorb and discharge the matter. Values which have been recognized for respiration which is a physical function are used to determine how rapidly the chemical will pass from a body of an individual and the amount that will be accumulated, metabolized, and disposed at different phases. Environmental contaminants are the reason for a number of detrimental consequences besides cancer, for instance birth defects, toxicity, harm to other organs and physical systems and diminished function of the immune system. In case of non-carcinogens, researchers suppose that a threshold subsists less than which no detrimental effects are possible to arise in humans. NOAEL or no observable adverse effects level is firstly recognized by scientists to quantify these values, which is the maximum exposure amid all available observations at which no lethal result was seen. Subsequently the NOAEL is divided by one or more factors of uncertainty, that normally range from ten to thousand, on the basis of the data quality that was utilized to quantify the no observable adverse effects level and on how near it is to determined exposures to human. Various Health Risks Found In The Natural Environment Environmental factors are a root reason of a considerable burden of disease, mainly in developing nations. An estimated twenty five percent of disease and death worldwide, and almost thirty five percent in areas for instance sub-Saharan Africa, is correlated to environmental risks. Some environmental factors such as unsafe drinking water, poor sanitation and hygiene, urban air pollutions, unintentional acute poisoning, climate change are among the numerous factors responsible for deterioration of human health. Threats can present themselves to us in an assortment of ways such as water, air. The affect these might have on the health of people is extremely complicated and a person’s genetic makeup, psychological factors and our observations of the hazards that they portray might adjust it. Significant matters regarding physical perils consist of those concerning health effects of ionising radiation and electromagnetic radiation. If the occupational environment is excluded, then noise and other physical perils might portray trouble to a number of occupants, as well as cause impairment of general comfort. Deafness is not usually caused due to environmental noise however prominent exemptions might involve “personal stereos” and loud discotheques. If tobacco smoking is seen as an environmental threat then it possibly stands for the sole largest recognized chemical danger to health that is airborne, if quantified in terms of rate of ill-health (from lung cancer, other lung disease for instance emphysema and chronic bronchitis, and heart disease, particularly, and of blood vessels and various body parts) or death. Non-smokers who are passively exposed to side stream smoke of tobacco, are severely affected as well. Other pollutants that arise due to excessive combustion of coal, liquid petroleum etc. cause asthma, bronchitis and various types of cancer. Incineration also leads to production of harmful substances like dioxins. Other source of environmental hazards is water. It might lead to leaching of lead from pipes particularly in the case of soft water. Neurological functions might be affected at relatively small but measurable level as suggested by epidemiological evidences, also these levels are generally considered acceptable but clearly aren’t (Agius, 2007). Many people living in the low-income strata face daily challenges including import of safe drinking water, food and other supplies and the proper excreta transport and other harmful waste products far from the settlement (Kjellstrom, 2007). The improper fashion in which these basic amenities are being provided tends to be a major cause of fatal diseases. Thus, problem-solving exercise including ethical analysis for decision-making in environmental health, action planning exercise, encouraging activities to classify, manage and avert environmental health issues comprising of recognizing impediments and resources are some of the ways through which environmental and the threats they pose can be countered.   The Role Of U.S. Government Agencies In Managing The Incidence Of Infectious Disease A continuing peril to all individuals all over the globe, regardless of gender, age, ethnic background, lifestyle or socioeconomic status is infectious diseases (Institute of Medicine). Suffering and death, along with severe financial burden are caused by these diseases. Even though modern advances for instance vaccines and antibiotics have helped in conquering a number of diseases, novel ones are emerging constantly (for example, Lyme disease and HIV/AIDS), while others recur in drug-resistant variety (for instance, tuberculosis and malaria). Preventing Emerging Infectious Diseases: A Strategy for the 21st Century (CDC) explains ways that can be implemented to move toward comprehending Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC’s) image of a world in which people, societies as well as nations unite in a general attempt to battle present rising infectious diseases and avert the ones which might occur in the future. The quarantine program of CDC also coordinates with the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Department of Interior, FDA and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Services to guarantee that other probable human disease carriers (animals and food) are appropriately handled. A framework of guidance for worldwide endeavours is the amended International Health Regulations (IHR 2005), an international agreement through which the member states of the WHO are legally bound that necessitates nations to form a lowest capacity stage to “identify, measure, inform and account” possible outburst and other crisis of public health as well as that plans the methods for accounting, examining, and reacting to these dangers at the global level. Additionally supervising the IHR and backing up its execution in nations globally, a central role is played by the WHO in case of outbreaks of disease. Other organizations with vital functions comprise the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE); as a number of EIDs originate in animals, FAO and the WTO; as safe practices of trade can assist in preventing and addressing outbursts. A new “Global Health Security Agenda,” was declared by the U.S. government in FEBRUARY, 2014, which is a 5-year (2014-2018) attempt to hasten development of a planet “harmless and protected from hazards of diseases that are infectious,” commenced in corporation with multilateral institutions, governments of other nations as well as private and public stakeholders. As echoed in the global and national health policy documents of the U.S., persistent engagement of U.S. in an attempt to diminish the danger and possible effects of emerging infectious diseases would be important for human health worldwide as well as to guard the security and comfort of American citizens in the country as well as overseas. To advance the preparedness of EID, the U.S. has further opportunities for the U.S which comprise of: abiding by the promises laid out in the Global Health Security Agenda, the U.S. global health investments being leveraged to further reinforce health systems, strengthening nation ownership of EID attempts by aiding nations to reach their IHR commitments, and advance the methods for technical and scientific co-operation among nations, chiefly in sight of difficulties and barriers that have delayed worldwide outburst exposure and reaction in the past.   References: Agius, R. (2007). What effects can the Environment have on Health? Retrieved 20 January, 2016, from CDC. Preventing emerging infectious diseases: a strategy for the 21st century. Atlanta, GA: CDC, in press. Institute of Medicine. (1992). Emerging infections: microbial threats to health in the United States. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Kjellstrom, T, Friel, S, Dixon, J, Corvalan, C, Rehfuess, E, Lendrum, D. C, Gore, F& Bartram,J. (2007).  Urban Environmental Health Hazards and Health Equity. Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, 84, 1, pp. 186-197. Quigley D, Handy D, Goble R, Sanchez V, George P. (2000). Participatory research strategies in nuclear risk management for native communities. J Health Commun 5:305-331. The Habitable Planet. Risk, Exposure, and Health. Retrieved on 20 January, 2016, from The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. (2014).The U.S. Government & Global Emerging Infectious Disease Preparedness and Response. Retrieved on 20 January, 2016 from World Health Organization. (2016). Priority environment and health risks. Retrieved January, 19, 2016, from Yassi A, Kjellstrom T, de Kok T, Guidotti TL. (2001). Basic Environmental Health. New York: Oxford University Press.

Basic features

  • Free title page and bibliography
  • Unlimited revisions
  • Plagiarism-free guarantee
  • Money-back guarantee
  • 24/7 support

On-demand options

  • Writer's samples
  • Part-by-part delivery
  • Overnight delivery
  • Copies of used sources
  • Expert Proofreading

Paper format

  • 275 words per page
  • 12pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, CHicago/Turabian, Havard)

Guaranteed originality

We guarantee 0% plagiarism! Our orders are custom made from scratch. Our team is dedicated to providing you academic papers with zero traces of plagiarism.

Affordable prices

We know how hard it is to pay the bills while being in college, which is why our rates are extremely affordable and within your budget. You will not find any other company that provides the same quality of work for such affordable prices.

Best experts

Our writer are the crème de la crème of the essay writing industry. They are highly qualified in their field of expertise and have extensive experience when it comes to research papers, term essays or any other academic assignment that you may be given!

Calculate the price of your order

You will get a personal manager and a discount.
We'll send you the first draft for approval by at
Total price:

Expert paper writers are just a few clicks away

Place an order in 3 easy steps. Takes less than 5 mins.

error: Content is protected !!
Open chat
Need Homework Help? Let's Chat
Need Help With Your Assignment? Lets Talk