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Physiological Principles For Health

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Physiological Principles For Health Question: Discuss about the Physiological Principles for Health and Social Care?   Answer: Introduction This study is based on the understanding of the different physiological principles and the knowledge of the normal physiology of the service users, in order to provide a complete and comprehensive care services to the service users. It has been seen that detailed knowledge of the human physiology allows the service users to provide the efficient care to the service users. The study describes the normal physiology of the human body including the skeletal and the muscular systems and their coordination to promote the growth of the body. The importance of the routine measures to provide the efficient care plan for the service users has been described in this study.  Discussing The Body Systems And Its Main Anatomical Features The Skeletal system consists of the bones and the framework of bones that provide the structure to the body, The skeletal system consists of the association of the bones along with the muscles to allow the body to maintain balance and establish effective movements.The Muscular system provides the flexibility and the coordination of the body and allows the body to move. The muscular systems consist of the muscles and the soft tissues that are connected to the muscles and the bones and thus help the body to move freely. The Digestive system is concerned with the digestion of the food particles that are ingested through the mouth. The digestive system consists of a stomach and the pancreas along with the pancreatic juices and the other enzymes, that are involved in the breaking down of the complex food into simple units to be readily used up by the cells for their metabolism (Kim and Chung, 2015, p.8942). The Circulatory systemof the human body is involved in the circulation of the oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart to the different parts of the body, to allow cellular respiration and metabolism, and the transportation of the deoxygenated blood from the different parts of the body to the heart and to the lungs for the oxygenation. The Urinary system of the human beings specifically functions in the excretion of the waste materials that are produced after the reabsorption through the kidneys. The Endocrine system is concerned with the production of hormones, which are needed for the growth of the body and the development of the body activities and body features. The Lymphatic system constitutes the lymphatic vessels that are a part of the body system of the human beings that deals with the elimination of the toxins that have been accumulated in the body over a specific time period. The decisions that are generally made by the body, are controlled by the Nervous system of the body (Blum et al., 2012, p.115). It ensures that the neurones, that are the structural and functional unit of the nervous system, carry the responses from the external environment to the brain and the spinal cord and the responses are accordingly generated. It enables the body to maintain coordination with the external environment. Figure 1: Human Anatomy (Source: Blum et al. 2012, p.115) Immune System The immune system of the human body is involved in providing the immune protection or immunity to the human body. These constitute the fighting ability of the body against the foreign particles or pathogens that enter the body, through various routes and causes infection. The immune system of the body consists of specialised cells inside the body including the macrophages, the natural killer cells, the lymphatic cells, the white blood cells and the antibodies. Whenever a foreign particle or antigen enters the body, the first line of immunity continues to act on the particle to eliminate them, and these include the macrophages and the white blood cells. Further, if the particles are unable to destroy and eliminate the antigen, specialised and specific immune cells called the antibodies comes into play and eliminates the antigens (Brodin et al., 2015, p.39). Figure 2: Immune System (Source: Brodin et al., 2015, p.41) Reproductive System The overall system of the reproduction in the human beings is controlled by the reproductive system of the body. The reproductive system in the males consists of the penis and the testes that are concerned with the production and the release of sperm. In females, the reproductive systems constitute the ovaries and the vagina, which are involved in the production of the ovum or the eggs. The reproduction stages and the reproductive ability of the human beings appear after a definite time period and are tightly regulated inside the body. The stage at which the reproductive phase of the human beings develops is referred to as the puberty age. The reproductive units become highly functional and are accompanied by the hormonal regulation of the reproductive organs (Sweeney et al., 2015, p.352). Figure 3: Reproductive System (Source: Sweeney et al., 2015, p.353) Respiratory System The respiratory system is involved in the respiration in human beings. On account of the respiratory system, the air is taken in or inhaled through the nose. The air contains a variety of gases including oxygen and passes through the windpipe, to the lungs and in the alveoli; the air is filtered for oxygen, which is dissolved in the nearby blood vessels. This mechanism is important as the cells of the human body undergo the cellular respiration and cellular metabolism, at the expense of the dissolved oxygen in the blood (Haid et al., 2016, p.3066). Figure 4: Respiratory System (Source: Haid et al., 2016, p.3067) Discussing the role of cellular metabolism and the body growth in the context of the Growth Hormone The normal functioning of the body is available on account of the coordination of the cellular metabolism of the body corresponding to the growth hormone and its secretion. In the cellular level, the cells of the body metabolise and this process is referred to as the cellular metabolism. The major aim of the metabolism is the generation of Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP). These may occur in two phases, catabolism and anabolism (Devaraj et al., 2013, p.622). In catabolism, the larger molecules are broken and a large amount of smaller molecules and a huge amount of energy is generated. On the other hand, in anabolism, the smaller molecules are aggregated to form the larger units, by the utilisation of energy. Figure 5: Catabolism and Anabolism (Source: Devaraj et al., 2013, p.621) The growth hormone is related to the external and the internal growth of the human body. The Somatotropic cells of the Pituitary gland are concerned with the production of the Growth Hormone (GH). As stated by Mady (2013, p.80), the fat cells contain the receptors that bind the growth hormones and the division of the cells occur. Correspondingly it is accompanied by the growth of the organs and the body parts. After a specific period of time, the production of the GH stops and the normal growth of the body are hindered. Therefore, it may be ascertained that the growth of the body is coordinated by the growth hormone. Explanation of body response to physical activities (ref: appendix 1) The human body is a machine that needs energy for survival and growth. As supported by Haskell et al. (2009, p.281), physical activities is a critical part of the healthy life living. Due to the increased pressure in the modern work culture, the activities of the normal human being have become limited. This has resulted in the occurrence of different diseases and deteriorating the health of a normal individual. Different physical activities like exercises, running, swimming and yoga help an individual to remain fit and healthy. These activities result in the rigorous functioning of the organs in the human body, which increases their capacity and longevity. The first system that is heavily affected by physical exercise is the respiratory system of the body. Daily activities help in increasing the capacity of lungs to inhale more amount of oxygen. This assists in delivering more energy as well as oxygen to the muscles and organs of the body thus strengthening it. Running raises the demand for more oxygen in the body as the process involves excessive loss of oxygen and energy. Thus, every organ in the body tends to work rigorously for obtaining energy for the body. It also affects his digestion system I an effective manner. Due to an excessive need of energy, the digestive organs of the body tend to work harder which increases the metabolism rate. Thus, the body absorbs every source of energy that is given to it in the form of food. Proper digestion of the food results in proper excretion of the waste products from the body. Thus, every organ of the body tends to function properly and increases the overall stamina and standard of health of the individual. As supported by Waxman (2005, p.164), the exercise results in strengthening the muscles and smoothening the joints due to which the limb movement and coordination get better. Thus, increases his reflex and keeps him active for a longer period. Explanation of body responses of physiology as well as cellular and tissue structure (ref: Appendix 2) A human body is composed of different types of cells that create tissues. Every organ and muscle in the body is made of tissues. Proper training and exercise help in better muscle expansion and contraction thus increasing its mass as well as strength. As suggested by Heaphy and Dutton (2008, p.145), due to the regular exercise the muscles functions rigorously which result in its demand for more oxygen. Thus, proper nutrition helps in its faster recovery and strengthening. Every limb in the body tends to become stronger and active with time. The muscles in the body get stronger and faster as well due to regular exercise. The locomotion of the movable joints gets smoother with excessive exercise thus, resulting in non-occurrence of joint issues. The exercise also increases the heart rate thus, resulting in more and faster blood circulation in the body. Due to loss of oxygen, the heart beats faster for delivering more oxygen through blood to every organ and limbs of the body. This results in better blood circulation and better transition and distribution of nutrients in the body. The loss of excessive energy results in the rigorous functioning of the digestive system in the body. Due to which the metabolism rate increases and results in better absorption of the nutrients for recovering more energy. The respiratory system of the body increases which fastens the rate at which the lungs inhale and exhale gases. The carbon dioxide in the body is the waste product that occurs due to the functioning of the every organ in the body. Thus, the body tends to replace it with the oxygen, as it is the pure source of energy. The lung capacity of absorbing or collecting oxygen increases due to exercise thus helps in providing the body with more amount of energy in the long term. As supported by Rose and Woolsey, (1949, p.450), every organ in the body is made up of a cell such as a wall of stomach, intestines, kidneys, muscles, neurones, blood and lymph.   Explanation of coordination of internal activities by the human body (ref: Appendix 3) Due to regular exercise, every organ of the body tends to work properly and co-ordinately. Every system and organs of the human body are interdependent. Without proper functioning of even one system would hamper the overall health of an individual. Proper body functioning requires the contribution from every organ. The whole process of absorbing the energy and excretion of the waste product is known as homeostatic. The process involves the absorption of the necessary nutrients from the food that is consumed. After exercise, the body requires the huge amount of energy for recovery. Thus, the respiratory system works harder to gather oxygen for the body and distribute it among the main organs for proper functioning. As the food reaches the stomach, the digestive system, which includes liver and pancreas, works hard to digest it and absorb the available nutrients from it to fulfil the need of energy. As supported by Bouillon et al. (1995, p.240), the endocrine system in the body produces or secretes hormones that provide that control with the activity of the organs. It helps in increasing the metabolism of the body thus, enabling its growth. The automatic nervous system regulates the internal organs of the body such as the heart, liver and muscles in the body. The nervous system activates the organs at the right time when it is required by the body. It controls the heart rate as per the need of energy in the body. It also regulates the activity of the liver for proper digestion of the food as per the requirement of energy by the body. The role of the kidney can be said as excreting the waste products in the form of fluid from the body. It excretes the waste, as it is harmful to the body. The kidney also produces vitamin D that is necessary for keeping the bones strong and healthy. As supported by Featherston et al. (1973, p.128), it regulates the production the red blood cells in the body. Skin in the human body provides protection from the external elements such as germs, pollution, temperature, radiation and chemicals. Explaining the ways of recording the routine measures and their impact in Healthcare From the case study, it has been evident that the individual suffers from obesity. Therefore, it is essential to measure the blood pressure and the condition of the heart. Moreover, the temperature and pulse of the patient are required to be monitored effectively. As stated by Chen et al. (2013, p.1), it is important for the service providers to provide and treat the individual with respect and dignity. It allows the service providers to communicate with the individual and assess the areas of comforts and discomforts of the individual. The temperature and the pulse allow the service providers to obtain the immune status of the body of the individual. As the body temperature increases, if the interaction with antigens is noted. Therefore, if the body temperature is noted to be high, it may be ascertained that the patient may have contracted with infection. The Blood pressure is to be monitored to measure the condition of the blood flow. As the patient is affected with obesity, if the blood pressure is high, the patient may experience the stroke. Therefore, as mentioned by Bradley et al. (2016, p.488), the conditions of the heart are needed to be measured regularly by monitoring the blood pressure and the Electrocardiographic analysis of the heart. It is important to note that the atherosclerosis is not observed on account of obesity as it may lead to stroke or heart attack in the patient. Assessing the importance of the routine measures in obtaining the body status of the person The temperature of the body reveals whether the body interacted with the foreign infections or particles or not. Therefore, if the body temperature of the patient is monitored, the immune status of the body may be determined. Further, if the body temperatures are high, blood Temperature tests are advisable for the patients to confirm the immune status of the patient.The pulse determination is essential for the patients as the pulse   reflects the functioning ability and the stability of the heart of the   patient. As the patient suffers from obesity and chest pains, the pulse Pulse determination is essential to monitor the condition of the heart, to   prevent the chances of stroke (       .   Santana et al ., 2015, p.1711) Blood Pressure The blood pressure is routinely measured especially in the patients   suffering from obesity, as a number of body functioning are related to   the blood pressure. The blood pressure may measure the status of the   blood  vessels  of  the  individuals  as  the  patient  may  develop   atherosclerosis and therefore the strokes may be prevented. ECG The Electrocardiogram (ECG) measures the status of the heart. As the   patient experiences pain in the chest and is affected by obesity, it is   important to monitor the status of the heart, to prevent the chances of   heart attacks on account of deposition of cholesterol in the blood   vessels (     ., 2012, p.107)   Carlier et al   Table 1: Importance of the routine measures Examining the importance of these reports on the care planning of the individual In a case of the problems associated with the blood pressure of the individual, the service providers ensure that the excessive cause of hypertension is not evident on the service users. Moreover, in this case, the excessive exercises and provision of comfortable and less strenuous exercises led to the development of effective care plan for the individual. Monitoring the pulse is essential for the service providers in preparing an effective care plan for the individual (Smith and Street, 2013, p.122). This is due to the provision of the minor exercises and if the condition of the obesity is found to be more, the individual is provided with exercises and body activities, which may increase the functioning of the heart. The reports of the body temperature provide the information to the care providers that the individual may be affected with the antigens or foreign infections. In this case, the blood tests may be prescribed to the individual and the conditions are maintained by the service providers that does not increase the detrimental effects of the pathogens. The Electrocardiographic analysis of the heart reveals the state of the heart of the individual. Medicines may be prescribed by the doctors and the care may be adopted by the service users to avoid the detrimental consequences of atherosclerosis and heart attacks (Kennedy et al., 2013, p.f2882). Explaining the impacts of her age on the body structure and functions It has been observed that the age of the individuals has a direct relationship with the structure and the functioning of the body. The recent studies indicate that the body mass and the muscle mass of the individuals decrease with age (Tiggemann and McCourt, 2013, p.626). It has been seen that the functioning and the flexibility of the bones decreases with age. In this case, Mary is 78 years old and she suffers from osteoarthritis and diabetes and moreover the increase in the age increases her tendency to fall. Therefore, she experiences fear of falling on account of the lack of the effective body balance that she used to have when she was young. Further, the amount of physical activities that she was able to perform at the younger age has been considerably reduced. Moreover, according to Schousboe et al. (2013, p.173), the hormonal imbalances are seen and this led to the cause of diabetes. On account of the lack of physical exercises, Mary was unable to undergo walking and physical exercises. Moreover, she feels dizziness and her ability to take decisions decreased in this case. This resulted from the decrease of the myelin sheath around the neurones and this led to the lack of the decision-making the ability of the individuals. Assessing the impacts of the conditions on her body structure and function It has been observed that amount of the physical activities of the individuals continue to decrease with age. This lack of the physical exercises lead to the lack of the ability to perform and the loss of the body balances are evident. As suggested by Schuna Jr et al. (2013, p.915), this may lead to the loss of body balance and ultimately lead to the falls and accidents on Mary. Moreover, the lack of the outing and interactions with the society are evident on Mary. As a result of this, the cognitive decision-making ability of Mary consequently decreased, and this has been sourced to the decay of the myelin sheath around the neurones. This has been accounted due to the lack of the body activities and the increase in the age of the individual. Therefore, in this case, Mary is unable to take decisions and always experiences fears, helplessness, and imbalances. As she is 78 years old, she experiences a higher rate of cell death as compared to the younger individuals. This lack of exercises may lead to the development and the detrimental effects of diabetes. She may have a higher blood sugar and a number of additional consequences may occur including the diabetic foot and diabetic retinopathy (Fischer et al., 2014, p.380). Relating the effects of her medical conditions and infections to routine care As she has diabetes, it is important for Mary, to be assisted by the service providers to be taken out for walk and exercises. This will reduce the fear of falls as she is assisted by the service providers. In this case, the service providers are required to provide the diet to her, according to the strict charts, to maintain a stable blood glucose level (Thifault et al., 2013, p.79). In this case, she may experience falls and accidents and the wounds will be difficult to heal on account of her diabetic conditions. Further, the assistances by the service providers will enable her to go out in the surrounding and maintain a stable interaction with the community. This may improve her mental and nervous states as she may be able to communicate effectively with the locality. As she experiences falls, the better communication with the service providers will enable them to prepare a risk assessment plan for Mary and accordingly implement the plan to promote a person-centred care for her. This may improve her mental health and allow her to communicate and undergo walks or exercises in the surroundings. Her lack of balance due to osteoarthritis may be minimised to some extent, on account of the balanced and controlled diet and regular exercises (Yu et al., 2016, p.A6882). Conclusion From the above studies, it may be ascertained that the routine measures are conducted on the individual patients and these routine measures provide the information about the body function and the physiology of the individual. Further, this allows the service providers to prepare a specific care plan and a risk assessment plan for the individual patients, thus allowing them to provide a person-centred care to the individual service users. The status of the internal body has a direct impact on the health of the individual. Moreover, it has been observed that the age of the individuals re directly related to the types of services that are required and the status of the body of the individual service users or the patients.   References Blum, T., Kleeberger, V., Bichlmeier, C. and Navab, N., (2012), March. mirracle: An augmented reality magic mirror system for anatomy education. In 2012 IEEE Virtual Reality Workshops (VRW) pp. 115-116. Bouillon, R., Okamura, W.H. and Norman, A.W., (1995). Structure-Function Relationships in the Vitamin D Endocrine System*. Endocrine reviews, 16(2), pp.200-257. Bradley, S.M., Rumsfeld, J.S. and Ho, P.M., (2016). Incorporating Health Status in Routine Care to Improve Health Care Value: The VA Patient Reported Health Status Assessment (PROST) System. Jama, 316(5), pp.487-488. Brodin, P., Jojic, V., Gao, T., Bhattacharya, S., Angel, C.J.L., Furman, D., Shen-Orr, S., Dekker, C.L., Swan, G.E., Butte, A.J. and Maecker, H.T., (2015). 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Implementation of self management support for long term conditions in routine primary care settings: cluster randomised controlled trial. Bmj, 346, p.f2882. Kim, S.H. and Chung, K.Y., (2015). Medical information service system based on human 3D anatomical model. Multimedia Tools and Applications, 74(20), pp.8939-8950. Mady, C.E.K., (2013). Human body exergy metabolism. International Journal of Thermodynamics, 16(2), pp.73-80. Rose, J.E. and Woolsey, C.N., (1949). The relations of thalamic connections, cellular structure and evocable electrical activity in the auditory region of the cat. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 91(3), pp.441-466. Santana, M.J., Haverman, L., Absolom, K., Takeuchi, E., Feeny, D., Grootenhuis, M. and Velikova, G., (2015). Training clinicians in how to use patient-reported outcome measures in routine clinical practice. Quality of Life Research, 24(7), pp.1707-1718. 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