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Pathophysiology: Study Of Body Physiology

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Pathophysiology: Study Of Body Physiology Questions: Part 1: Answer the following Critical Thinking Questions (in your own words and at least one paragraph unless otherwise specified). Use the Internet, your textbook and other applicable resources: 1. Write a paragraph describing how structure and function are important aspects of pathophysiology. 2. Are you healthy or ill? How do you know? What characteristics describe someone who is healthy? When does a person often become labeled as ill? Think about and explain a situation where a person was diagnosed with an illness, but considered themselves to be healthy. How about when a person does not have a diagnosis, but considers themselves to be ill? CH2: Altered Cells and Tissues Part 1: Answer the following Critical Thinking Questions (in your own words and at least one paragraph unless otherwise specified). Use the Internet, your textbook and other applicable resources: 1. What would happen if cells did not have the ability to adapt to stressors? What are the implications in health and disease? 2. What are the common characteristics of the different mechanisms of cellular adaptation? What are the differences? Chapter 2 Discussion Question #1 Can the prevalence of high-risk types of HPV vary geographically? Why is it important to determine the most common types of high-risk HPV in a particular regions or geographic area? Chapter 2 Discussion Question #2 Who is most at risk for illness related to second-hand smoke? What increases vulnerability to disease? Case study You are spending the winter skiing in the mountains of Colorado. You notice that exertion while skiing make your tired and that you do not have as much energy as you did before staying in the mountains . You realize that your are feeling this way because your body cannot take in as much oxygen at the higher attitude. One long-term adaptation your body must make is to increase the production of red blood cell to better oxygenate your tissues and cells. Based on the information in this chapter and additional readings, answer the following questions: 1-What is the most likely stressor that will cause your cells to adapt? 2-What are the adaptions your cells likely to make to respond to the stressor? 3-What is the potential outcome if your cells are unable to adapt? 4-What lab tests can be used to support your body’s adaptations? 5-Can any treatments be used to support your body’s adaption?   Answers: Part 1: Answer 1 Pathophysiology is the study of body physiology while considering it from the viewpoint of pathology.  Physiology is the biological study of structure and function of the body, and it is also concerned about the healthy status of the body contributing to normal function and regulation. On the other hand, in the diseased condition, the normal structure or function of body or body parts becomes disturbed, thereby facilitating the establishment of disease (Dorei and Morse, 201). The pathophysiology is concerned about those conditions facilitating disease establishment. Answer 2 Ill health has some characteristics, which would be visible if someone is not well. A person suffering from illness will have changed level of consciousness, dizziness, nausea, headache, signs of rapid breathing, sudden weakness and sweating and other symptoms would be visible. The healthy people will be able to do ADLs without any problem, proper weight and BMI, blood pressure and exercise capability would indicate healthy status.  Mental illness is a situation, where after diagnosis the person considers that he or she is healthy as the signs are not visible physically (Garrett and Rosenthal, 2012). If a person have a particular mental disorder, anxiety, the individual is able to do most of the ADLs without any health issue, so in this situation, the person would not be considered as ill, though diagnosed with health issue.  Nowadays, everyone has enough knowledge about the health and safety. Therefore, the primary signs of illness most of the time can be easily detected by people, based on which they implement safety measures. When a person is having some kind of primary symptoms, including headache, nausea, low blood pressure etc, the person sometimes without diagnosis considered as ill through the pathophysiological symptoms. CH 2 Part 1: Answer 1        In the constantly and rapidly changing environment, adaptation is must for every organism to survive and grow. Therefore, cells should have the capacity to adapt according to the environment. If the cells do not have the capacity to adapt according to the environment, the cells would become injured and could not alter the structure and functions for responding towards stress. The injury to the cells would damage some body parts or the entire body system, in respect to the cause of stress to cell type (Inderwildi and King, 2012). Answer 2 The common characteristics of different mechanisms of cellular adaptation include the cell’s capability to response based on different conditions via signal transduction, which results in mutation of gene caused by the stress factors. All the cellular adaptations help to influence the organ functioning to the response against stressor. However, the response of cell structure and function based on different stressor and specific conditions differ significantly (Lo, 2012). Chapter 2 Discussion Question#1 The high risk of HPV can vary geographically. The HPV or human papilloma vaccine is transmitted via sexual interaction, therefore, in a specific geographical area; there would be a particular subtype of the HPV virus, which is transmitting consistently in that area. Therefore, there is a geographical distribution of different subtypes of human papilloma virus which are the strains adapted according to their physiology for the specific geographical area. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the subtype’s prevalence in the geographic area. The vaccines of HPV are specific to geographic virus subtypes (Kabasenche, O’Rourke and Slater, 2012). Chapter 2 Discussion Question#2 Each person is exposed to the environment where someone is at the risk of secondhand smoking. The people at risk of second-hand smoking are also at the risk of developing side effects of toxic exposure. The immune-suppressed individuals including children or older adults having respiratory diseases are vulnerable to second-hand smoking (Lumb, 2012).   Case Study Answer 1 The adaptation of cells is important for surviving a healthy life in different or changed environmental condition. Therefore, in changed environmental condition, the cells would acquire structural and functional adaptation to the respond against stressors. In the case study, at high altitude, the availability of oxygen decreases and it is the most likely stressor, which would promote the cell adaptation (Tognetti, 2012). Answer 2 The cells are suffering from low oxygen availability, which is hampering the respiration of body cells, thereby making the feelings of tiredness. The acclimation of high altitude would take sometimes to adapt. The adaptation required in this situation would be the stimulation of red blood cells for carrying additional oxygen to combat with the additional requirement. The respiratory centre would sense the requirement according to which the oxygenation would be decreased and the breathing rate would be increased till the cells are able to normalize body function (Uy and Shaw, 2012). Answer 3 Adaptation is a very important biological function or characteristic of a complex organism, including human. It helps the organism to survive in different environment, in harsh condition effectively. Therefore, if the cells were not able to cope with the environment or fail to adapt it would lead to different serious outcomes related to the survival of the organism. In this context, the cells, which failed to adapt in a changed environment might assist in developing different fatal consequences.  In the case scenario, the cells and tissue would develop the tissue ischemia for the prevention of adequate oxygenation (Wolf, 2012). Answer 4 In different conditions, the human or other organism’s body needs adaptation to become familiar with the environment. This is the reason for which travelling to a new country of different geographical area incorporates some health complications, it is due to the initial phase when body cells are trying to adapt with the situation. In this context, physicians prescribe some laboratory diagnosis, which can determine the body system related adaptations, and related requirements the body needs to adjust to that particular environment. In the case scenario, a complete blood count (CBC) can be recommended, which would provide the measurement of red blood cells, haemoglobin and hematocrit (Tognetti, 2012). Answer 5 In the changing environment, the body needs physical adaptation, which is directed and signaled from the molecular level. In this context, the cells can be inspired to adapt the changes according to the physical and environmental needs rapidly. In some cases, the body fails to adapt the changes and then physicians suggest treatments for stimulating the adaptation process in the body. In the case scenario, the adaptation can be stimulated with the provision of supplemental oxygen for preventing hypoxia of tissues and cells (Wolf, 2012).    Reference List Dorei, G. and Morse, B., 2012. Cold regions engineering 2012. Reston, Va.: American Society of Civil Engineers. Garrett, S. and Rosenthal, J., 2012. A Role for A-to-I RNA Editing in Temperature Adaptation. Physiology, 27(6), pp.362-369. Inderwildi, O. and King, D., 2012. Energy, transport, & the environment. London: Springer. Kabasenche, W., O’Rourke, M. and Slater, M., 2012. The environment. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. Lo, M., 2012. Adaptation. New York: Little, Brown. Lumb, A., 2012. Nunn’s Applied Respiratory Physiology. London: Elsevier Health Sciences UK. Tognetti, R., 2012. Adaptation to climate change of dioecious plants: does gender balance matter?. Tree Physiology, 32(11), pp.1321-1324. Uy, N. and Shaw, R., 2012. Ecosystem-based adaptation. Bingley, U.K.: Emerald. Wolf, M., 2012. Oxygen transport to tissue XXXIII. New York: Springer.

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