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Pathophysiology And Epidemiology Of Asthma

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Pathophysiology And Epidemiology Of Asthma Question: • Explain the disorder you selected, including its pathophysiology and epidemiology. • Explain a protocol for the diagnosis, management, and follow-up care of this disorder. • Explain how culture might impact the care of patients who present with the disorder you selected. ?   Answer: Asthma is considered  as the most common chronic provocative disease of the airways, which is associated with variable and a recurring number of symptoms. Some of the typical symptoms of the disease include coughing, chest tightness, wheezing, difficulty in breathing and coughing. Thus, asthma is characterized by a variable number of symptoms, which primarily includes airflow obstruction and bronchospasm (Alexander et al., 2012). Asthma is also considered as the most common chronic disorder of childhood, which affects 12.5% of children. Asthma is primarily caused by a amalgamation of environmental and genetic factors.  The chronic inflammation of the conducting zone of the airways (bronchi and the bronchioles) results in the onset of the disease, which is associated with an increase in the contractibility of the surrounding smooth muscles disease (Melen & Pershagen, 2012). Thus, this leads to bouts of narrowing of the airway and the symptom of wheezing. With the onset of asthma, the characteristic changes in the airways include coagulating of the lamina reticular and increase in the size of the eosinophils. There is an also an increase in the size of the mucous gland due to an increase in the size of the smooth muscle.  Almost 330,000,000 people worldwide remain affected by asthma and approximately more than three hundred thousand people die per year from the onset of the disease (Alexander et al., 2012).  It has been estimated from a report that the incidence rate of the disease is between 2.65 to 4/1000 per year (Melen & Pershagen, 2012).  In childhood, the onset of the disease is very much frequent among offspring less than five years of age and is more prevalent in boys than in the girls. Diagnosis And Management Asthma is primarily diagnosed with a therapeutic assessment and medical tests that helps in computing the airflow in and out of the lungs.  Offspring associated with the disease may not be able to complete the airflow test, which requires blowing very hard into the tube. Also, since the children are not able to describe how they feel, caregivers and family members needs to take measures to remain alert for the symptoms. The diagnosis process also includes skin and blood test of the children in order to examine whether there is any presence of specific allergies that can trigger any asthmatic symptoms (Redwood & Neill, 2013). Health care providers need to have a detailed family history of the children suffering from asthma or any allergies such as the hay fever hives etc. Depending upon the severity and frequency of the disease, treatment needs to be provided. Whether mild or severe, any asthma symptom is a matter of concern and thereby needs to be accurately controlled and diagnosed (Kennedy et al., 2012) Children suffering from asthma are thereby advised to use an inhaler in order to provide quick relief from the first sight of the symptoms. The use of inhaler helps in delivering the medication into the lungs for providing immediate relief. In case, if the drugs suggested by the doctor is not helping the child to avoid the asthma triggers, effective methods need to be implemented in order to determine whether the symptoms associated triggered due to exposure to any particular allergen such as pet dander or pollen. If positive outcomes are observed, then the care provider for providing relief to the child recommends suitable immunotherapy (Gupta et al., 2012).   Impact Of Culture Cultural factors such as the language boundaries and the parental beliefs are considered as the primary barrier to the asthma care. Patients with a language hurdle thereby have less access to the usual font of the medical care (Alexander et al., 2012). Thus, the patients do not receive preventive care at lower rates and thereby develops an increased risk of non-adherence to medication. By the child’s asthma care, patient’s brawny beliefs beside the use of medication along with the preferences for the holistic approaches to treatment may serve to stand as an obstacle for providing the successful treatment. Individual’s faiths, beliefs, language and home remedies may pose a potential threat to the successful implementation of evidence-based care plan (Coutinho et al., 2013). Thus, cultural knowledge is the process by which education regarding various cultures can be obtained. One of the best methods used to gain knowledge regarding the cultural beliefs of the patient forms the patients themselves. Cultural skill also helps in obtaining appropriate cultural information regarding the patient’s clinical history and current problem. Seeking to gain knowledge regarding the culture influences helps in obtaining information concerning the lifelong process that is primarily based on the knowledge of one culture (Coutinho et al., 2013). The outcome of the patient’s health practices and beliefs including religion preferences, medicinal use of foods, communication needs and other alternative medication use helps the asthma care provider to create a trusting environment, which favors open communication (Gupta et al., 2012).   References Alexander, A. G., Barnes, P. J., Chung, K. F., Flower, R. J., Garland, L. G., Goldie, R. G., … & Lulich, K. M. (2012). Pharmacology of asthma (Vol. 98). Springer Science & Business Media. Coutinho, M. T., McQuaid, E. L., & Koinis-Mitchell, D. (2013). Contextual and cultural risks and their association with family asthma management in urban children. Journal of Child Health Care, 1367493512456109. Gupta, A., Bush, A., Hawrylowicz, C., & Saglani, S. (2012). Vitamin D and asthma in children. Paediatric respiratory reviews, 13(4), 236-243. Kennedy, J. L., Heymann, P. W., & Platts‐Mills, T. A. (2012). The role of allergy in severe asthma. Clinical & Experimental Allergy, 42(5), 659-669. Melén, E., & Pershagen, G. (2012). Pathophysiology of asthma: lessons from genetic research with particular focus on severe asthma. Journal of internal medicine, 272(2), 108-120. Redwood, T., & Neill, S. (2013). Diagnosis and treatment of asthma in children. Practice Nursing, 24(5), 222-229.

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