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Pathology And Genetic Of Tumour Digestive

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Pathology And Genetic Of Tumour Digestive Question: Discuss about the Pathology and genetic of tumour digestive.     Answer:  Introduction The report is about colorectal cancer screening. It details indications for screening, screening measures, risk factors, diagnostic and therapeutic measures after a positive colorectal cancer screening. The course of colorectal cancer pathology, poly-cancer, positive types of colonic polyps, and applicable follow-up measures are also captured in this report. Indication For Screening A polyp which is longer than one centimeter in diameter during sigmoidoscopy remains a clear indication of full colon examination because between 30 and 50 percent patients have additional polyps. Polyps lesions detected on barium enema might denote pseudo polyps, carcinomas or true polyps. The symptoms for screening may include an alterations in one’s bowel habits, such as diarrhea/constipation or even an alteration in stool’s consistency, which lasts longer than 4 weeks. Another indication can be rectal bleeding or presence of blood in the stool. Also, persistent abnormal discomfort like gas, pain or crams are clear indications. A feeling that one’s bowel does not empty fully is another indications besides fatigue/weaknesses as well as unexplained weight loss (Hamilton & Aaltonen, 2000). Screening Measures The screening must include a range of tests and offer alternatives and sharing decisions with patients to improve rates of screening. This is based on offering choices in screening that help increase screening uptake. Thus no preferred/ranked order for screening. However, screening must maximize total number of individuals being screened.  This will have the greatest effect on reducing deaths due to colorectal cancer (Lynch, 2005).  Risk Factors The main risk factor is the family history of disease and older age. However, various other factors have been attributed to increased risks. These include excessive alcohol use, obesity, smoking cigarette, being inactive physically and diet (Levin et al., 2008). Further, individuals with history of inflammatory bowel disease like ulcerative colitis/Crohn disease show higher risk of colorectal cancer. Also, individuals with some inherited conditions like Lynch Syndrome as well as familial adenomatous polyposis have also show increased risk of colorectal cancer (Rivadeneira & Killelea, 2007).   Diagnostic And Therapeutic Measures After Positive Screening Where a clinical symptoms and signs indicate colon cancer or where screening through radiography/sigmoidoscopy identifies a huge-bowel tumor, a complete colonoscopic exam needs to be undertaken to acquire biopsy samples and to look for synchronous lesions. Colonoscopy findings have implications for surgical treatment plan. Histologic diagnosis needs to anchor examination of fully excised polyp (Markowitz, 2007). All polypoid lesions bigger than 0.5 cm must be excised fully. Repeat colonoscopy is performed in three to four months once sessile polyp larger than 2 cm is removed and a concern of incomplete removal of adenoma. Resection is required in case residual tissue stays and colonoscopy repeated in another three to four months (Guarino, Rubino & Ballabio, 2007).  Course Of Cancer Pathology Colorectal cancer starts like a polyp, a tissue growth which lines inside surface of rectum/colon. It could be a flat/raised one. The latter could grow internal side of rectum. Positive Types Of Colonic Polyps There are three types: hyperplastic, adenomatous and malignant polyps. Hyperplastic is often small and situated in end-portion of colon. It has no potential of being malignant and is never worrisome. Adenomatous is the most common and don’t develop into cancer but has potential of being cancerous. Malignant contain cancerous cells. Applicable Follow-Up Measures The main objective of such a measure is early cancer detection which has reverted after being treated. It entails regular physical exams, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) tests, colonoscopy/recto sigmoidoscopy and computed tomography (CT) (Levin et al., 2008). The follow-up care is imperative as it assists in maintenance of good health (Bretthauer, 2011). This involves side effects’ management from treatment as well as lasting side-effects’ watching. Most importantly, such measures help watch for signs of a cancer recurrence.   References Bretthauer, M. (2011). Colorectal cancer screening. Journal of internal medicine, 270(2), 87-98. Guarino, M., Rubino, B., & Ballabio, G. (2007). The role of epithelial?mesenchymal transition in cancer pathology. Pathology, 39(3), 305-318. Hamilton, S. R., & Aaltonen, L. A. (2000). WHO classification of tumours. Pathology and genetics of tumours of the digestive system. Geneva: World health organization. Levin, B., Lieberman, D. A., McFarland, B., Smith, R. A., Brooks, D., Andrews, K. S., … & Pickhardt, P. (2008). Screening and surveillance for the early detection of colorectal cancer and adenomatous polyps, 2008: a joint guideline from the American Cancer Society, the US Multi?Society Task Force on Colorectal Cancer, and the American College of Radiology. CA: a cancer journal for clinicians, 58(3), 130-160. Lynch, P. M. (2005). Colorectal Cancer: Screening and Primary Prevention. Gastrointestinal Cancer, 85-103. Markowitz, A. J. (2007). Colorectal Cancer Screening and Surveillance. Colorectal Cancer, 51-68. Rivadeneira, D. E., & Killelea, A. G. (2007). 11 Surgical Treatments for Colon and Rectal Cancer: A Critical Appraisal of Evidence-Based Data. Gastrointestinal Oncology: Evidence and Analysis, 111.

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