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Nursing Assignment Of Vaccination Mechanism

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Nursing Assignment Of Vaccination Mechanism Question Discuss about the Nursing assignment Of Vaccination mechanism.     Answer: Vaccination is the mechanism in which there is biological preparation providing active acquired immunity towards a particular disease. According to Yaqub et al., (2014) vaccination is the immunization where it is injected into the body that help in expanding the immunity of an individual against a particular disease. This improves the immunity towards a particular disease and vaccine containng an agent resembling disease-causing microorganisms and formed from killed or weakened forms of the microbe, toxins or surface proteins. Measles is a viral infection of respiratory system being contagious and caused by a virus. Vaccination for measles helps to prevent measles and in this essay, the cause and effect of measles vaccination will be discussed. The first cause for measles vaccination was due to the measles outbreak in 1954 where several patients became ill in Boston, Massachusetts. After that in late 1960’s, the epidemiology of measles was well understood and in 1963, John F. Enders and Dr. Thomas C. Peebles isolated the measles in 13-year-old David Edmonston’s blood. After that, they transformed the Edmonston-B strain of measles virus into vaccine and in 1968, improved form of measles vaccine was developed by Maurice Hilleman, being licensed gradually. Before the measles vaccination was developed, this infection was so common that it was considered as an inevitable cause of death. This widespread measles outbreak led to the introduction of the vaccine in the year 1963 being the major cause for its development. The effect of vaccination uptake during the measles outbreak in 1971 and 1977 helped to break down the thousands of measles cases per year during the 1980s. An outbreak of 30,000 cases in the year 1990 led to push for new vaccination development and in the year 1997 and 2013, less than 200 cases were reported and in the year 2014, measles cases came down to 610 and roughly around 30 cases in January 2015. The effect was widespread and it is not considered an epidemic documenting millions of morbidity and mortality (Luyten & Beutel, 2016). The vaccine has led to a near-complete elimination of the disease from the targeted countries.   The cause for further measles development was not it soared again in between the years 1989 and 1991 with 55,622 diagnosed cases in these three years. The cases were diagnosed among children under the age of five years and disadvantaged populations. During those years, it was found that 90% of the diagnosed cases were those in which vaccinations were not given. Marginalized population were socially disadvantaged as they were unable to afford vaccines and lack of awareness among them regarding measles vaccination due to low socio-economic status. Moreover, vaccination was given to the children during their early childhood that led to the increased outbreak among this particular population. Due to poverty and poor living conditions, there is rapid spread of measles infection that affect marginalized people as they cannot lack awareness and cannot afford vaccines (Eisenstein, 2016). This shows that poverty and measles disease spread are strongly related. It can be stated that there is increase in infectious disease (measles) among the communities where people have poor living conditions. This evidence strongly suggests that there is strong connection between the poverty and measles infection without any doubts. After this second outbreak, the major effect of vaccine development was that it played an important role in counteracting measles. It is made affordable to the disadvantaged population and strong integration into the modern medicine that increased immunity to wards measles. As mentioned above, children below the age of five were not vaccinated and it suggested that although, measles can be prevented to some extent, proper immunization is important according to dose and schedule during early childhood (Aaby et al., 2014). In addition, crowded and unsanitary communities are prone to high infection spread and therefore, vaccination reaching to targeted population can help to curb the disease by healthcare systems (Largeron et al., 2015). From the above discussion, it can be concluded that vaccination was developed because of the major outbreak during the year 1954. This adversely affected people and this led to the invention and development of vaccination during 1960s by Maurice Hilleman and colleagues that became licensed at that time. The reason for the development of this disease was to reduce the alarming rates of morbidity, mortality and mostly to reduce the spread of the disease. Moreover, vaccine was further developed to provide proper immunization at scheduled doses to the children below the age of 5 years with an aim to reduce the number of child deaths. With increased vaccination use, this infection spread has been reduced further declaring near-complete elimination of measles.   References Aaby, P., Martins, C. L., Garly, M. L., Andersen, A., Fisker, A. B., Claesson, M. H., … & Benn, C. S. (2014). Measles vaccination in the presence or absence of maternal measles antibody: impact on child survival. Clinical infectious diseases, 59(4), 484-492. Eisenstein, M. (2016). Disease: poverty and pathogens. Nature, 531(7594), S61-S63. Largeron, N., Lévy, P., Wasem, J., & Bresse, X. (2015). Role of vaccination in the sustainability of healthcare systems. Journal of market access & health policy, 3(1), 27043. Luyten, J., & Beutels, P. (2016). The social value of vaccination programs: beyond cost-effectiveness. Health Affairs, 35(2), 212-218. Yaqub, O., Castle-Clarke, S., Sevdalis, N., & Chataway, J. (2014). Attitudes to vaccination: a critical review. Social Science & Medicine, 112, 1-11.

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