All your Writing needs covered

NCS 3101 Child And Adolescent Health

Calculate the price
your order:

275 words
Approximate price
$ 0.00

NCS 3101 Child And Adolescent Health Questions: Examine and discuss your nursing assessment and priorities. What risk factors can you identify? What are the nursing problems? What nursing interventions will you put into place?     Answers: Introduction The case scenario describes the clinical condition of a three years old male child (Elias) exhibiting the clinical history of delayed motor development, irritability and malaise. The patient appears emotionally dependent of his parents and influenced with vitamin D deficiency. The child is affected with the pattern of impetigo as evidenced by the appearance of crusty yellow sores over his nose and mouth. Delay in patient’s motor development might relate to an abnormality of congenital origin that might have affected his walking capacity (Malak, Kostiukow, Krawczyk-Wasielewska, Mojs, & Samborski, 2015). The developmental motor delay is also related to the pattern of neuronal degeneration leading to the over-expression of peroxidase coding genes. Delayed motor development remains highly prevalent in children with a history of periventricular brain injury and pre-term birth (Campbell, et al., 2012). Delay in child’s motor development adversely influences his cognitive and adaptive abilities during childhood (Ghassabian, et al., 2016). The timely acquisition of motor milestones is highly significant for the normal physiological development of the growing child. The timely identification of the pattern of developmental delays in children is necessarily warranted with the objective of configuring remedial as well as rehabilitative interventions for the systematic enhancement of the developmental outcomes (Gupta, Kalaivani, Gupta, Rai, & Nongkynrih, 2016). Irritability in children is clinically manifested in terms of the outcomes including grouchy and sulky mood as well as inadequate temper outbursts. The defects in the developmental trajectory of the growing children contribute to the pattern of their anger predisposition across the community environment (Leibenluft, 2017). Patient’s malaise leads to the experience of uneasiness and discomfort requiring assessment by the nurse professional in the clinical setting (NIH, 2017). Patient’s vitamin D deficiency increases his predisposition towards the development of symptoms including fatigue, muscle weakness and pain and disturbed thought processes (Weyder, 2014). The cases of vitamin D deficiency appear subclinical in the growing children (Michie, 2010). Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent across the children population. Accordingly, the affected children remain highly predisposed towards the development of immune system disorders and associated manifestations (Weyder, 2014). The pattern of impetigo experienced by the patient warrants the requirement of undertaking diagnostic interventions for evaluating the extent of Staphylococcus aureus colonization in the patient’s skin (Pereira, 2014). This research paper evidentially discusses the assessment strategies, medical management approaches, nursing interventions and care plan warranted for improving the health outcomes of Elias across the community environment.   Assessment Strategies The clinical requires utilizing HINT (Harris Infant Neuromotor Test) diagnostic tool with the objective of assessing the pattern and intensity of child’s delayed motor development (Harris, 2016). The HINT intervention considers the circumference of patient’s head for analysing the development of microcephaly in patients affected with developmental delays. The pattern of child’s movement and play activities, supine position and passive range of motion, resting extremity posture and visual following as well as existence of stereotypical behaviour requires analysis through HINT tool for evidentially tracking the level of delayed motor development and associated clinical manifestations (Harris, 2016). The clinical requires assessing the level of patient’s communication in the context of clinically correlating the same with the progression of his delayed motor development. The reciprocal delay in patient’s communication (if tracked) evidentially correlates with the delay in his motor development and walking capacity (Bhat, Galloway, & Landa, 2012). The pattern of patient’s irritability warrants the requirement of investigating the development of DMDD (disruptive mood dysregulation disorder) or SMD (severe mood dysregulation) by the attending clinician and nurse professional (Krieger, Leibenluft, Stringaris, & Polanczyk, 2013). The pattern of patient’s SMD (if diagnosed) would reveal his elevated inclination towards negative stimuli reflected through abrupt behaviour. The nurse professional might also observe distractibility, pressured speech, agitation and insomnia (in the patient) that might emanate under the influence of SMD (Krieger, Leibenluft, Stringaris, & Polanczyk, 2013). The pattern of patient’s irritability could also relate with the elevated frequency of his temper outburst that proves to be inconsistent with the level of his physiological development. Such a pattern is indicative of the development of DMDD in the affected child (Krieger, Leibenluft, Stringaris, & Polanczyk, 2013). Patient’s known pattern of vitamin D deficiency requires the utilization of the laboratory evaluation of the active concentration of calcidiol in accordance with the standard prescribed by the Institute of Medicine (Lee, So, & Thackray, 2013). Severe deficiency of vitamin D is affirmed with the serum calcidiol concentration of less than 5ng/mL. However, mild to moderate insufficiency is indicated by the findings of 4-15ng/mL (Lee, So, & Thackray, 2013). In the presented clinical scenario, patient’s mother requires the increased consumption of vitamin D (i.e. 4000-6400 units/day) in the context of improving the level of vitamin D in the affected patient. The enhancement of vitamin D in breast milk reciprocally elevates its level in the developing child through breast feeding intervention (Lee, So, & Thackray, 2013). The mother of the breastfeeding child also requires consuming the food items with vitamin D content in the context of accomplishing his vitamin D deficiency. These food items could include cow’s milk, egg yolk, cod liver oil, shrimp, swiss cheese, fresh mushrooms, cereal fortified, butter, yogurt, swiss cheese and raw Atlantic herring (Lee, So, & Thackray, 2013). The clinician as well as the nurse professional requires evaluating the type of child’s impetigo (i.e. bullous or non-bullous) for its effective treatment (Hartman-Adams, Banvard, & Juckett , 2014). The physical examination of patient’s integumentary system assists in finding out the pattern of non-bullous of bullous impetigo in the affected patient. The appearance of yellowish of honey coloured or crusty yellow sores on the face of the child is indicative of the development of non-bullous impetigo manifested by Staphylococcus aureus (Hartman-Adams, Banvard, & Juckett , 2014).   Medical Management The medical interventions warranted for effectively treating the manifestations of patient’s delayed motor development attribute to the administration of AAC (augmentative and alternative communication) approaches, motor based behavioural interventions, electromagnetic brain stimulation treatment and RIT (reciprocal imitation training) (McCleery, Elliott, Sampanis, & Stefanidou, 2013). These interventions facilitate the systematic improvement in patient’s behaviour, language, play activities, walking and communication as well as socialization skills. AAC technique utilizes sign language approaches to facilitate the pattern of speech in developmentally delayed children (McCleery, Elliott, Sampanis, & Stefanidou, 2013). This intervention also uses picture exchange methods for improving the level of patient’s communication. The motor based behavioural remediation strategy assists in the systematic manipulation of patient’s anatomical structures associated with the production of sound (McCleery, Elliott, Sampanis, & Stefanidou, 2013). This manipulation is materialized by the clinicians through the administration of various play activities. Electromagnetic brain stimulation technique transmits low intensity intracranial current to the patient’s cerebral cortex with the objective of enhancing brain functionality (McCleery, Elliott, Sampanis, & Stefanidou, 2013). RIT is a gesture-based intervention that helps in engaging the children in various learning activities for the systematic enhancement of their overall mental and behavioural functionality (McCleery, Elliott, Sampanis, & Stefanidou, 2013). pharmacotherapeutic management of paediatric irritability warrants the utilization of drugs in accordance with the associated aetiology and psychosocial manifestations. These drugs could include clomipramine, fluvoxamine, fluoxetine, sertraline, citalopram, escitalopram, venlafaxine, trazodone, mirtazapine, haloperidol, pimozide, clozapine, risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, ziprasidone, aripiprazole, paliperidone, methylpnenidate, atomoxetine, clonidine, guanfacine or memantine (Doyle, 2012). The medical management of paediatric malaise is entirely based on its existing aetiology. The best recommended therapy for malaise management attributes to the systematic administration of cognitive behavioural intervention for effectively enhancing the energy level of the treated patient (Jason, Barker, & Brown, 2012). Cognitive rehabilitation not only improves the level of patient’s socialization but also elevates his mental health outcomes across the community environment. Evidence-based clinical literature advocates the requirement of administering vitamin D supplements to the paediatric patient in the context of treating the pattern of his vitamin D deficiency (Harijan, Khan, & Hussain, 2013). However, low dosages of vitamin D supplements do not evidentially enhance the bone mineral density of the treated patient. Regular sunlight exposure is another treatment of choice that could facilitate the production of vitamin D in the treated patient. The paediatric patient requires the topical administration of antibiotic creams containing fusidic acid mupirocin for effectively treating his impetigo lesions (PubMed_Health, 2015). Oral administration of erythromycin is another treatment option available for decreasing the intensity of crusty yellowish impetigo sores. Orally administered erythromycin exhibits superior action potential in comparison to the topical antibiotics (PubMed_Health, 2015).   Nursing Interventions (Including Care Plan) Nursing Diagnosis Risk Factors Nursing Assessment and Interventions Rationale Treatment and Care Outcomes Delayed Motor Development Patient’s risk factors related to the delayed motor development include his nutritional mismanagement, economic constraints and underprivileged status, a state of neglect, lack of normal physiological development and defective sanitation mechanism (Ali, 2013).   The nurse professional requires require evaluating the daily activities of the child while effectively coordinating with the family members. Nurse will also administer periodic education sessions to the parents of the paediatric patient and make them understand their roles and responsibilities for improving the coping skills and motor activities of the treated child. The nurse professional will configure the pattern of a therapeutic relationship with the patient as well as his family members in the context of improving his communication ability (Roberts, Fenton, & Barnard, 2015). Nutritional management of the treated patient is highly required by the nurse professional in the clinical setting. The nurse professional requires emphasizing the requirement of adequate sleep and educate the parents in relation to establishing a well-defined sleep schedule for the treated child. The nurse professional would engage patient’ family members in the context of organizing various play activities for the paediatric patient.       The regular monitoring of patient’s daily activities, dietary consumption as well as the pattern of breast-feeding will assist the nurse professional in terms of monitoring the pattern of his physiological development (Gantschnig, Fisher, Page, Meichtry, & Nilsson, 2015). The regular assessment of patient’s psychosocial functioning is necessarily required with the objective of improving his psychosocial development as well as motor skills. The administration of dietary interventions would enhance the energy level, coping skills and the growth curve of the treated child (IOM, 2011). The establishment of a sleep schedule would improve the overall wellness of the child across the community environment (Buxton, et al., 2015). The organization of various play activities would systematically improve the cardiovascular and musculoskeletal systems of the treated patient (Alves, et al., 2016). This would also facilitate his mental and social development across the community environment.     The child will exhibit considerable development in the pattern of his motor development. He will also acquire coping skills and effectively socialize with other children of similar age groups. The parental involvement in child’s daily activities will elevate their understanding of the developmental requirements. Parents will also remain motivated in the context of regularly administering person-centred and holistic interventions while understanding the social, emotional and physical requirements of their treated child. Irritability Treated paediatric patient experiences elevated risk of encountering falls, trauma, infection and aspiration under the influence of his pattern of irritability. The nurse professional requires engaging the family members of the treated patient with the objective of configuring a protective environment for eliminating the sources of patient’s irritability. The culturally appropriate as well as family-centred approaches require administration by the nurse professional for effectively improving the behavioural outcomes of the treated child. The nurse professional should understand the refugee status of patient’s family and provide them regular reassurance as well as moral and social support for enhancing their level of trust and compliance to the recommended treatment interventions. The configuration of a safe environment improves the level of patient’s comfort that effectively reduces his irritability and associated adverse behavioural outcomes (LEIBENLUFT & STODDARD, 2013). The pattern of reassurance and psychosocial assistance to the family members of the treated patients would systematically restore the pattern of their dignity and confidence. They will resultantly engage themselves in the process of medical-decision making with the objective of elevating the treatment outcomes (Miller, 2009). Patient will exhibit positive change in behaviour as well as reduced level of irritability. Vitamin D Deficiency Patient’s ethnicity, underprivileged status as well as socioeconomic constrains prove to be the risk factors of his vitamin D deficiency in the presented clinical scenario. The nurse professional must evaluate the cultural conventions practiced by patient’s family members and logically motivate them in terms of administering vitamin D supplementation (in dosage of 400 IU) on daily basis while concomitantly undertaking partial breast feeding (Carbonare, Valenti, Forno, Caneva, & Pietrobelli, 2017).   The administration of additional vitamin D supplement in concordance with breast feeding will normalize the level of vitamin D in the treated paediatric patient (Carbonare, Valenti, Forno, Caneva, & Pietrobelli, 2017).  The patient will evidently exhibit an improvement in the pattern of his vitamin D deficiency.   Conclusion The nursing management of the paediatric patient warrants the systematic administration of evidence-based holistic and family-centred approaches to restoring the pattern of his physiological development and wellness outcomes across the community environment. The critical analysis of this case study assisted in identifying a range of comprehensive nursing approaches requiring implementation for the systematic enhancement of the prospective professional clinical practice. Thorough knowledge of various pharmacotherapeutic interventions is necessarily required by the nurse professional in the context of reducing the scope of medication errors associated with paediatric adversities. However, the insight and knowledge of various multidisciplinary paediatric healthcare interventions prove to be the essence of nursing practice in the healthcare setting. The nurse professional must identify, evaluate and understand the risk factors associated with various paediatric disease conditions attributing to irritability, vitamin D deficiency and delayed physiological development in the context of facilitating the treatment outcomes. The appropriate monitoring of patient’s activities of daily living, dietary management, customization of culturally appropriate nursing strategies, administration of behavioural approaches and partnering with patient’s family members in the process of medical decision making include some of the evidence-based measures warranting their systematic implementation for the enhancement of patient-care outcomes in various healthcare settings.   Bibliography Ali, S. S. (2013). A brief review of risk-factors for growth and developmental delay among preschool children in developing countries. Advanced Biomedical Research. doi:10.4103/2277-9175.122523 Alves, A. J., Viana, J. L., Cavalcante, S. L., Oliveira, N. L., Duarte, J. A., Mota, J., . . . Ribeiro, F. (2016). Physical activity in primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease: Overview updated. World Journal of Cardiology, 8(10), 575-583. doi:10.4330/wjc.v8.i10.575 Bhat, A. N., Galloway, J. C., & Landa, R. J. (2012). Relationship between early motor delay and later communication delay in infants at risk for autism. Infant Behavior and Development, 35(4), 838-846. doi:10.1016/j.infbeh.2012.07.019 Buxton, O. M., Chang, A. M., Spilsbury, J. C., Bos, T., Emsellem, H., & Knutson, K. L. (2015). Sleep in the modern family: protective family routines for child and adolescent sleep, 1(1), 15-27. Retrieved from Campbell, S. K., Gaebler-Spira, D., Zawacki, L., Clark, A., Boynewicz, K., deRegnier, R. A., . . . Zhou, X. J. (2012). Effects on Motor Development of Kicking and Stepping Exercise in Preterm Infants with Periventricular Brain Injury: A Pilot Study. Journal of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine, 5(1), 15-27. doi:10.3233/PRM-2011-0185 Carbonare, L. D., Valenti, M. T., Forno, F. d., Caneva, E., & Pietrobelli, A. (2017). Vitamin D: Daily vs. Monthly Use in Children and Elderly—What Is Going On? Nutrients, 9(7), 652. doi:10.3390/nu9070652 Doyle, C. A. (2012). Pharmacologic treatments for the behavioral symptoms associated with autism spectrum disorders across the lifespan. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 14(3), 263-279. Retrieved from Gantschnig , B. E., Fisher , A. G., Page , J., Meichtry , A., & Nilsson, I. (2015). Differences in activities of daily living (ADL) abilities of children across world regions: a validity study of the assessment of motor and process skills. Child Care Health and Development, 230-238. doi:10.1111/cch.12170 Ghassabian, A., Sundaram, R., Bell, E., Bello, S. C., Kus, C., & Yeung, E. (2016). Gross Motor Milestones and Subsequent Development. Pediatrics, 13. Ghassabian, A., Sundaram, R., Bell, E., Bello, S. C., Kus, C., & Yeung, E. (2016). Gross Motor Milestones and Subsequent Development. Pediatrics, 138(1). doi:10.1542/peds.2015-4372 Gupta, A., Kalaivani, M., Gupta, S. K., Rai, S. K., & Nongkynrih, B. (2016). The study on achievement of motor milestones and associated factors among children in rural North India. Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care, 5(2), 378-382. doi:10.4103/2249-4863.192346 Harijan, P., Khan, A., & Hussain, N. (2013). Vitamin D deficiency in children with epilepsy: Do we need to detect and treat it? Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences, 8(1), 5-10. doi:10.4103/1817-1745.111413 Harris, S. R. (2016). Early identification of motor delay. CFP-MFC, 62(8), 629-632. Retrieved from Hartman-Adams , H., Banvard , C., & Juckett , G. (2014). Impetigo: diagnosis and treatment. American Family Physician, 90(4), 229-235. Retrieved from IOM. (2011). Nutritional Considerations for Infants and Children. In Child and Adult Care Food Program: Aligning Dietary Guidance for All. USA: National Academies Press. Retrieved from Jason, L. A., Barker, K., & Brown , A. (2012). Pediatric Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. Revolution in Healthcare, 3(4), 257-270. Retrieved from Krieger, F. V., Leibenluft, E., Stringaris, A., & Polanczyk, G. V. (2013). Irritability in children and adolescents: past concepts, current debates, and future opportunities. Revista Brasileira De Psiquiatria, 35((0 1)), S32-S39. doi:10.1590/1516-4446-2013-S107 Lee, J. Y., So, T. Y., & Thackray, J. (2013). A Review on Vitamin D Deficiency Treatment in Pediatric Patients. The Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 18(4), 277-291. doi:10.5863/1551-6776-18.4.277 Leibenluft , E. (2017). Irritability in children: what we know and what we need to learn. World Psychiatry, 100-101. doi:10.1002/wps.20397 LEIBENLUFT, E., & STODDARD, J. (2013). The developmental psychopathology of irritability. Development and Psychopathology Journal, 25((4 0 2)), 1473-1487. doi:10.1017/S0954579413000722 Malak, R., Kostiukow, A., Krawczyk-Wasielewska, A., Mojs, E., & Samborski, W. (2015). Delays in Motor Development in Children with Down Syndrome. Medical Science Monitor, 1904-1910. doi:10.12659/MSM.893377 McCleery, J. P., Elliott, N. A., Sampanis, D. S., & Stefanidou, C. A. (2013). Motor development and motor resonance difficulties in autism: relevance to early intervention for language and communication skills. Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience. doi:10.3389/fnint.2013.00030 Michie, C. (2010). Managing vitamin D deficiency in children. London Journal of Primary Care, 3(1), 31-36. Retrieved from Miller, V. A. (2009). Parent-Child Collaborative Decision Making for the Management of Chronic Illness: A Qualitative Analysis. Families, Systems & Health, 249-266. doi:10.1037/a0017308 NIH. (2017). Malaise. Retrieved from PubMed Health: Pereira, L. B. (2014). Impetigo – review. Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia, 89(2), 293-299. doi:10.1590/abd1806-4841.20142283 PubMed_Health. (2015). Interventions for the skin infection impetigo. Retrieved from Roberts , J., Fenton , G., & Barnard , M. (2015). Developing effective therapeutic relationships with children, young people and their families. Nursing Children and Young People, 27(4), 30-35. doi:10.7748/ncyp.27.4.30.e566 Weyder, J. A. (2014). Vitamin D in Children’s Health. Children (Basel), 208-226. doi:10.3390/children1020208

Basic features

  • Free title page and bibliography
  • Unlimited revisions
  • Plagiarism-free guarantee
  • Money-back guarantee
  • 24/7 support

On-demand options

  • Writer's samples
  • Part-by-part delivery
  • Overnight delivery
  • Copies of used sources
  • Expert Proofreading

Paper format

  • 275 words per page
  • 12pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, CHicago/Turabian, Havard)

Guaranteed originality

We guarantee 0% plagiarism! Our orders are custom made from scratch. Our team is dedicated to providing you academic papers with zero traces of plagiarism.

Affordable prices

We know how hard it is to pay the bills while being in college, which is why our rates are extremely affordable and within your budget. You will not find any other company that provides the same quality of work for such affordable prices.

Best experts

Our writer are the crème de la crème of the essay writing industry. They are highly qualified in their field of expertise and have extensive experience when it comes to research papers, term essays or any other academic assignment that you may be given!

Calculate the price of your order

You will get a personal manager and a discount.
We'll send you the first draft for approval by at
Total price:

Expert paper writers are just a few clicks away

Place an order in 3 easy steps. Takes less than 5 mins.

error: Content is protected !!
Open chat
Need Homework Help? Let's Chat
Need Help With Your Assignment? Lets Talk