All your Writing needs covered

Manifestations Diagnosis Of Premenstrual

Calculate the price
your order:

275 words
Approximate price
$ 0.00

Manifestations Diagnosis Of Premenstrual Discuss About The Clinical Manifestations And Diagnosis Of Premenstrual Syndrome And Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder.   Answer: Introduction Hormonal episodes arising after ovulation usually activates Premenstrual Syndrome (Walsh, Ismaili, Naheed & O’Brien, 2015). Its symptoms start in the late luteal phase, and they are not related with bounded engrossment of any particular gonadal or non-gonadal steroids, and they are associated to the progesterone production via the ovary (Imai, Ichigo, Matsunami & Takagi, 2015). The Sex steroids usually pass the blood-brain barrier easily, and their receptors are several within various regions of the brain comprising of the hypothalamus along with amygdala. Progesterone is metabolized within the brain to allopregnanolone together with pregnenolone that provokes the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) inhibitory neurotransmitter system and the receptors are related to changes in mood and cognition (Imai, Ichigo, Matsunami & Takagi, 2015). Pregnenolone along with allopregnanolone creates anxiolytic, sedative, and an aesthetic impact when it is in high concentrations otherwise allopregnanolone can result to anger, irritability, breast tenderness, nausea, acne and abdominal blotting (Walsh, Ismaili, Naheed & O’Brien, 2015).  After exposure to high concentrations, GABA receptors become less sensitive leading to worsened symptoms encountered in the late luteal phase. Progesterone and estrogen also affect the serotonergic activity in the brain (Imai, Ichigo, Matsunami & Takagi, 2015). Progesterone boosts monoamine oxidase (MAO) which reduces the 5-hydroxytryptamine leading to a depressed mood. On the other hand, estrogen expands the degradation of monoamine oxidase expanding the possibility of free tryptophan within the brain that improves the serotonin transport hence simulating 5-hydroxytryptamine binding sites in the brain leading to an antidepressant impact (Walsh, Ismaili, Naheed & O’Brien, 2015).   Discuss The Common Causes Of Premenstrual Syndrome. At the time of luteal phase hormones from the ovary causes the uterus lining to develop spongy as well as thick. During this time, an egg is released from the ovary, and if it meets with sperm, it may implant in the lining of the uterus and develop (Raffi & Freeman, 2017). During this, progesterone hormone level increases while that of estrogen starts to decrease in the body. This shift from estrogen to progesterone results to some of the premenstrual syndrome symptoms. Ladies who have severe premenstrual syndrome have undiagnosed depression caused by anger and irritability (Safari, Manzari Tavakoli, Kheyr Khah, Saeedi & Mahdavinia, 2015). This is as a result of lower serotonin levels in their brains before their periods. Also, cyclic hormonal changes that result in fluctuations in serotonin which is a brain chemical that performs a vital responsibility in mood states triggers the symptoms of premenstrual syndrome. Hormonal cyclic changes cause abdominal bloating that affects the control in balancing of salt and water in the body. Moreover, estrogen hormone causes fluid retention which leads to breast tenderness and bloating in women who experience premenstrual syndrome. Drinking alcohol is another possible factor that is associated with premenstrual syndrome (Ryu & Kim, 2015). Using alcohol may plausibly increase the risk of premenstrual syndrome by altering levels of gonadotropin and sex steroid hormones during the menstrual cycle. Moreover, intake of alcohol may increase the risk of premenstrual syndrome via its impact on gamma-aminobutyric acid and serotonin activity (Ryu & Kim, 2015). Describe The Difference Between Clinical Manifestations Of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome And Premenstrual Syndrome. The Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Premenstrual Syndromes’ Clinical manifestations are based on the quality life impact, symptom timing of and the most common symptoms. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome is a common diagnosis in women presenting with infertility since they may not ovulate and often have difficulties in getting pregnant (Sirmans & Pate, 2014) while Premenstrual Syndrome is a diagnosis in women presenting with fertility since the can ovulate (Yonkers & Casper, 2016). Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome experience missed or irregular menstruation due to the excessive androgens level associated with it that makes the menstruation periods nonexistent or intermittent (Sirmans & Pate, 2014). On the other hand, women with Premenstrual Syndrome experience regular menstruation cycles. The effect of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome on quality of life is that it results to well-being issues in life eventually; from heart disease to type 2 diabetes and even endometrial cancer while that of premenstrual syndrome lead to impairment in physical functioning, mental health and severe dysfunction in occupational or social realms (Yonkers & Casper, 2016). The most common symptoms of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome are infrequent or irregular periods, excess body and facial hair growth and oily skin. On the other hand, the most popular symptoms of premenstrual syndrome are fatigue, bloating, breast tenderness and food cravings. The timing of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome symptoms starts manifesting after the onset of puberty (Sirmans & Pate, 2014)  while those of premenstrual syndrome can begin at teen years and occur during the luteal phase. Outline The Most Common Therapies For Premenstrual Syndrome And Discuss The Lifestyle Changes To Help With PMS Syndrome Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) incorporate paroxetine (Paxil, Pexeva), sertraline (Zoloft) and fluoxetine (Prozac, Sarafem). For severe premenstrual syndrome, SSRIs are the first line of treatment and are successful in lowering mood symptoms (Amasha, Mohamed & Nageeb, 2017). Using hormonal contraceptives stop ovulation which may bring relief from symptoms of premenstrual syndrome. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs comprise of naproxen sodium (Aleve) and ibuprofen (Motrin IB, Advil). They are taken before or at the onset of menstruation period, and they ease cramping and breast discomfort. Finally, taking water pills that is, diuretics helps in shedding excess fluids via the kidneys. A diuretic such as Spironolactone (Aldactone) is useful in easing some of the premenstrual syndrome symptoms (Amasha, Mohamed & Nageeb, 2017). Exercise and eating right controls anger, irritability and mood changes. An exercise of 30-45 minutes for 4-5 days every week is recommended. Also, dietary shifts are recommended for patients with premenstrual syndrome (Appleton, 2018). Smoking cessation reduced salt by eating own food with less salt for patients with breast tenderness and bloating and drinking plenty of water of at least 64 ounces every day to reduce bloating and to help in digestion. Eating a variety of fruits and vegetables, whole grain and complex carbohydrates will stabilize moods and keep cravings under control when they moderate rise in the level of insulin when the food enters the bloodstream. Increasing intake of iron by eating lean meats before and during menstruation is recommended to replace the blood loss (Appleton, 2018).   References Amasha, H. A., Mohamed, R. A., & Nageeb, H. (2017). Complementary and alternative therapies for premenstrual syndrome: an exploratory study. Khartoum Medical Journal, 10(3). Appleton, S. M. (2018). Premenstrual Syndrome: Evidence-based Evaluation and Treatment. Clinical obstetrics and Gynecology, 61(1), 52-61. Imai, A., Ichigo, S., Matsunami, K., & Takagi, H. (2015). Premenstrual syndrome: management and pathophysiology. Clinical and experimental obstetrics & Gynecology, 42(2), 123-128. Raffi, E. R., & Freeman, M. P. (2017). The etiology of premenstrual dysphoric disorder: 5 interwoven pieces: a better understanding of the causes of PMDD can lead to improved diagnosis and treatment. Current Psychiatry, 16(9), 21-30. Ryu, A., & Kim, T. H. (2015). Premenstrual syndrome: a mini review. Maturitas, 82(4), 436-440. Safari, T., Manzari Tavakoli, A. R., Kheyr Khah, B., Saeedi, H., & Mahdavinia, J. (2015). The relationship between premenstrual syndrome with anxiety, depression, and changes in social relations of women in Kerman University of Medical Sciences. Report of Health Care, 1(4), 139-141. Sirmans, S. M., & Pate, K. A. (2014). Epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of polycystic ovary syndrome. Clinical epidemiology, 6, 1. Walsh, S., Ismaili, E., Naheed, B., & O’Brien, S. (2015). Diagnosis, pathophysiology, and management of premenstrual syndrome. The Obstetrician & Gynaecologist, 17(2), 99-104. Yonkers, K. A., & Casper, R. F. (2016). Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. UpToDate. Last updated: Fev, 10.

Basic features

  • Free title page and bibliography
  • Unlimited revisions
  • Plagiarism-free guarantee
  • Money-back guarantee
  • 24/7 support

On-demand options

  • Writer's samples
  • Part-by-part delivery
  • Overnight delivery
  • Copies of used sources
  • Expert Proofreading

Paper format

  • 275 words per page
  • 12pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, CHicago/Turabian, Havard)

Guaranteed originality

We guarantee 0% plagiarism! Our orders are custom made from scratch. Our team is dedicated to providing you academic papers with zero traces of plagiarism.

Affordable prices

We know how hard it is to pay the bills while being in college, which is why our rates are extremely affordable and within your budget. You will not find any other company that provides the same quality of work for such affordable prices.

Best experts

Our writer are the crème de la crème of the essay writing industry. They are highly qualified in their field of expertise and have extensive experience when it comes to research papers, term essays or any other academic assignment that you may be given!

Calculate the price of your order

You will get a personal manager and a discount.
We'll send you the first draft for approval by at
Total price:

Expert paper writers are just a few clicks away

Place an order in 3 easy steps. Takes less than 5 mins.

error: Content is protected !!
Open chat
Need Homework Help? Let's Chat
Need Help With Your Assignment? Lets Talk