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Literature Review On Tuberculosis

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Literature Review On Tuberculosis Critical review of the literature on ONE emerging or re-emerging communicable disease threat (choose from list below); should include role of agent, host and environmental factors, potential policy responses. Zika Virus MERS (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome) – Ebola HIV MDR/XDR Tuberculosis   Answer: MDR/XDR Tuberculosis Tuberculosis is defined as a health disease which is caused by the bacteria’s which are spread from one individual to another by air. The rate of TB is growing very fast in the last few years and in Australia, most of the people are facing the problem of XDR tuberculosis. The MDR is defined as multidrug-resistant tuberculosis which is a type of TB that is caused by the organism (Abubakar, et al., 2013). It is a kind of drug-resistant which has main two potent TB drug such as isoniazid and rifampin. The main purpose of this essay has described the problem of MDR and XDR TB and their impact on the human body system. It is observed the in last few years the rate of TB has increased by 40% in Australia and most of Australians adults were diagnosed due to the XDR TB. This essay is explaining the concept of tuberculosis and determines the key factors that increase this kind of health issues. The XDR is also a part of TB which is defined as extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis and it is resistant to both rifampin and isoniazid plus any other fluoroquinolone. In this essay, the researcher conduct a literature review to gather the relevant information about TB and there are many writers that provided their views on this health problem which will be discussed in this essay. The tuberculosis is a very serious problem which occurs due to the bacteria and generally, it affects the lungs of the human body system and other parts such as the brain, spine and the kidney. It is observed that if any person is suffering from the problem of TB then he can die because it is very complex health disease that spread from person to person (Agyeman, & Ofori-Asenso, 2016). The XDR TB occurs in the person who has HIV infection which can weaken the immune system. According to the name the MDR and XDR TB both are spreading in the same way and the bacteria’s of TB are put into the air when one person communicates with other. This type of problem can affect the lungs of the human and these bacteria can float in the air for a few hours and it depends upon the condition of the environment. Bernard, et al., (2013) identified that the issue of TB does not spread through shaking someone hand, transferring foods or drink, kissing, and sharing toothbrushes.   It is researched that the drug resistance of TB has occurred when these kinds of drugs are mismanaged by the individuals. For example when any person does not complete their treatment course, and when the doctor provides the wrong medicine or wrong dose to the patients of the TB. According to the world health organization, the problem of XDR TB is very common in the person who does not take proper treatment does not communicate with the doctors or nurses and have spent a lot of time with a person who has the TB disease. There are many symptoms identified by the National Health Service for example sickness, weight loss, night sweats and weakness, chest pain, coughing up blood and coughing (Borisov, et al., 2017). The other symptoms of tuberculosis depend upon the environment and if any people have these kinds of signs then he can contact with the doctors immediately because it can spread and their family members can face this kind of health disorder. It is identified that in Australia the rate of TB is increasing very quickly because they use unhealthy foods and beverage and they do not follow any exercise plans. Around one in the four individuals in worldwide are suffering from the issue of TB and the TB bacteria’s can decrease the immunity of the person. De Lorenzo, et al., (2013) investigated that the problem of TB is very serious in Australia those aged between 18 and 25 years and people who have TB they do not take proper treatment by which they can face the long-term impacts on the body. In the year 2014 around 1.4 million individuals were died due to the TB and more than 10 million people are suffering from this health disorder (Falzon, et al., 2013). In the year 2015, the rate of TB has increased by 30% in the world because of the unhealthy foods and air. The world health organization analysed that almost 1200 to 1300 new cases are added per year in Australia and people who were born and grew up in the Australia country are very unlikely and they face the issue of XDR/MDR tuberculosis. Tuberculosis is very danger health disease and most the individuals are suffering from this problem because they eat unhealthy foods like fast foods. The government of Australia is supporting the GoPNG for reducing the health and economic impacts of the XDR or MDR tuberculosis. The main goal of WHO is to identify the cause of MDR TB and find the complete treatment to reduce the percentage of the TB in Australia (Gandhi, et al., 2012). It is observed that there are main three MDR tuberculosis hotspots, for example, national capital district, western province and gulf province. In between 2011 and 2017 the Australian government allocated around $59 million to support the PNG for the addressing of the tuberculosis rate. In which $44 million are allocated for the western province and rest of $15 has allocated to the NCD and national response. There are numbers of the reports provided by the WHO and they identified that most the individuals does not take complete treatment for this problem and it spread from one person to another. The world TB was derived from the Latin world tubercular that means a small lump and this health disease has occurred in the individuals for the thousands of years with the archaeological finding. In the year 2012 the rate of TB has decreased by the 20% but in the year 2013, it has increased due to lack of health promotion and unhealthy diets (Jain, Dixit, & Prasad, 2012). There are numbers of countries that are facing the issue of tuberculosis such as South Africa, the United Kingdom, Australia and Indonesia. There are many researchers that collected data from various resources and they analysed that in the year 2020 the rate of TB will be enhanced and it will reach almost 8 billion people in the world. In the year 2015, it is seen that around 480,000 new instances of TB were included and the primary reason for this addition is the absence of solid weight control plans and drug.   As indicated by the report of the World wellbeing association around 1.3 million individuals passed on in 2015 because of this sort of wellbeing issue. Somewhere in the range of 2000 and 2015 around 22% of individuals kicked the bucket because of HIV and TB infection and it is assessed that this sickness is in the fifth position which is an intense issue. World wellbeing association distributed numerous reports each year and furthermore saw that around 6 million new cases were included in 2015. As per world wellbeing association in 2015 the rate of TB sickness is expanded by 1.5% and it is seen that around 2 million individuals in 2016 were influenced by this wellbeing issue. To diminish this sort of issue world wellbeing association created numerous feasible objectives and end TB methodology which decreased this kind of medical issue. TB ailment is ninth most driving reason for death worldwide and it is an intense issue for all nations. In the year 2016, it is ascertained that around 1.3 million individuals kicked the bucket because of HIV and TB and in the year 2017 this rate is expanded by 1.6%. As per world wellbeing association, the rate of TB and HIV is expanded by 2% every year and it is seen by World wellbeing association in 2020 this rate will be expanded by 5%. There are many key components which driving this sort of medical issue, for example, unfortunate weight control plans, germs, microbes delivered by waste, undesirable waste, the absence of physical exercises, and absence of activity. Somewhere in the range of 2000 and 2016 around 44 million were experienced this wellbeing issue and 490,000 new cases are included around the world. Most the countries are now providing the complete report on the rate of tuberculosis in which around 480000 new cases were be added in between 2015 and 2017. Moreover, the countries that have a high rate of drug resistance often have the poorest quality of data and it is increasing due to the lack of resistance testing. Generally, MDR- tuberculosis was identified to 3.3% and 20% of the retirement cases in the year 2015. The development of a molecular diagnostic to identify the resistance in under process and the rate of MDR-TB rates are very similar to the XDR-TB. There is a resurgence of enthusiasm for new medications for TB, with the principal new medications in 40 years currently continuing through advancement, including bed aquiline, delamanid what’s more, pretomanid. As vital as individuals operators are the advancement of new regimens that can be conveyed automatically, for example, the 9-month Bangladesh regimen (involving gatifloxacin, clofazimine, ethambutol and pyrazinamide, with prothionamide, kanamycin and high-portion isoniazid included for the concentrated phase). There is likewise enthusiasm for off-mark utilization of existing anti-infection agents with hostile to TB movement, for example, linezolid, what’s more, meropenem– clavulanate, and new systems to limit harmfulness, for example, helpful medication observing. Be that as it may, regardless of whether new regimens end up set up, huge obstructions exist to giving treatment to MDR-TB in the nations that need those most. MDR-TB is both a reason and side effect of poor transferable ailment control programs, with MDR-TB regimens costing around ten times that of medication helpless cases. In the year 2016, it is estimated that around 600000 new cases were be added and around 24000 people died due to the MDR and XDR tuberculosis (Klopper, et al., 2013). Around 6.2% of the MDR-TB cases have been identified in Australia and the world health organization provided a complete report on the topic of tuberculosis every year. Due to which their family members can face the problem of MDR TB and if they take proper treatment and eat healthy foods then the percentage of TB can be reduced. According to the Kumar, P. (2017) around 1.4 million deaths faced by the Australian government and it is a very most common infection worldwide. In the last few years, the United Nations world health developed the global strategies and policies for the prevention of tuberculosis. The End TB strategy is very popular health policy that was developed by the WHO and they make a goal to reduce the TB deaths by 95% and avoid the new cases by 90% in between the year 2015 and 2035 (Tiberi, et al., 2016). For the initial time the global ambition is not just to control and monitor the health issue of tuberculosis and to people can communicate with their doctors and tell him their problem. The MDR TB is defined as an airborne bacterial disease which is caused by the M. tuberculosis that can impact on the human blood circulation. In which the transmission of bacteria occurs by the inhalation of nuclei that passes through the human mouth and first the individual suffers the problem of weakness. A tuberculosis case is a very crucial situation and can spread from the one individual to another.   There are main five key elements was identified by the Streicher, et al., (2012) for the evaluation of the TB health disorder such as medical history taking, test and treatment for the MDR/XDR TB, chest radiograph, bacteriological evaluation of clinical specimen and physical examination process. In some cases, the pulmonary type of tuberculosis has many signs and symptoms like coughs, chest pain and weight loss. The testing process for the TB disease can be done by the skin or blood test and the skin test process is also known as Monteux TB which is initiated by injecting a dose of TB fluid into the lower portion of the human arms. The other process blood test also called as interferon gamma release array that determines the cause of TB and most of the Australian hospitals uses this type of treatment to resolve the issue of tuberculosis. Now the drug susceptibility test (DST) is adopted by the doctors because it has the ability to resolve the TB and their symptoms for a lifetime and it is done in the isolated tubercle bacilli specimen to find the drug resistance of the TB (Tang, et al., 2013).  There are many authors argued on the topic of tuberculosis and they observed that person who has MDR TB does not adopt any health programme due to which this problem spread with others who communicate with them. There are many health organization and authorities that developed numbers of strategies and policies for the prevention of tuberculosis. According to the WHO and national health organization in the year 2015, the percentage of tuberculosis has improved by the 1.6% and at that time 2 million people were diagnosed due to the MDR tuberculosis (Tiberi, et al., 2014). Between 2012 and 2014 there are 42000 new cases were being added in the hospitals in which the rate of unhealthy women are very high as compare to the unhealthy men. To avoid this problem the world health organization produced the END TB strategy and they made a plan in which the percentage of TB will be decreased by 90% in the year 2020.   The sustainable development goal is also a prevention policy which was developed by the WHO in the year 2000 and after the development of this strategy, this health issue has reduced by 10% in the year 2005. The main goal and purpose of these strategies are to gather the relevant data about tuberculosis and find the best way for the prevention of this health-related issue. The sustainable development policies provide a medium to detect the symptoms and key factors that increase the problem of tuberculosis. There are many goals and steps involve in this health policy such as increase the quality of food and nutrition, promote health and wellbeing plans, increase the training and education sectors to reduce the health disease, decrease the inequality in all countries and take urgent action if any person face this kind of problem and also motive for the healthy foods and exercise and promote societies and family member for the sustainable development (Sotgiu, et al., 2012). The main objective of the END TB strategy is to identify the main key threats that occur due to tuberculosis and remove TB from Australia with 90% in the year 2020. This health policy covers the period from 2016 to 2035 and with the help of this health policy many organisation reduced this problem. There are main four key principles of this human health policy for example, public accountability with the monitoring and evaluation, better coalition with the communities and civil society, promotion of the people equity, ethics, and rights, and generation of strategy and policy and make the objective to avoid tuberculosis (Sirgel, et al., 2013).  The 2035 objectives are a 95% lessening in TB expiries and a 90% diminishing in the TB occurrence rate, coordinated with levels in 2015. The 2030 objectives are a 90% decline in TB passing and an 80% diminishing in the TB event rate, related to planes in 2015 (Tang, et al., 2015). A while later 2025, an exceptional hurrying in the rate at which TB event falls worldwide is mandatory if the 2030 and 2035 objectives are to become too. Such a surging will rely upon a mechanical leap forward – for the test, a post-presentation infusion or a little, viable and safe activity for torpid TB infection (LTBI) – so the peril of developing TB ailment among the around 2– 3 billion people who are beforehand sick with Mycobacterium tuberculosis is extensively dense. Wellbeing advancement is the most vital stage to advance well-being and prosperity administrations and furthermore useable to lessen different sort of wellbeing ailment, for example, diabetes, corpulence, coronary illness, TB, and HIV. There are many key elements which are expanding numerous wellbeing dangers, for example, Tabaco, smoking, utilization of undesirable nourishments, the absence of activity and physical exercises. There are principle three key elements of wellbeing advancement, for example, great administration for wellbeing, wellbeing proficiency, and sound urban areas. Wellbeing advancement is characterized as a procedure which is utilized to enhance the soundness of any individual by advancing solid eating regimens and exercise. The fundamental goal of wellbeing advancement is to depict wellbeing dangers and furthermore examine distinctive kinds of medical issues. In this manner in a most recent couple of year’s wellbeing advancement assume a critical job in human services administrations and it is assessed that wellbeing advancement diminished issue of TB and HIV by 30% of every 2014 (Skripconoka, et al., 2013). This essay is completely based on tuberculosis health disorder and in which a literature has been conducted to understand the fundamental concept of MDR and XDR tuberculosis. There are many people who are diagnosed with TB because they eat unhealthy foods like fast food and drink beverage rather than water. In the year 2014 around 2 million people were suffered from the MDR TB in which around 68% people are adults who were between 20 and 27 years. It spread from one person to another due to the communication in the air and most the people take incomplete treatment by which they can face the long-term problem. With the help of this essay, readers can enhance their knowledge in the area of tuberculosis and most of them the authors used the qualitative and quantitative research method to analyse the problem of tuberculosis. Therefore people ensure that they take only healthy diets and if they have any sign or symptom related to MDR/XDR TB then immediately contact with the doctor.   References Abubakar, I., Zignol, M., Falzon, D., Raviglione, M., Ditiu, L., Masham, S., … & Marais, B. J. (2013). Drug-resistant tuberculosis: time for visionary political leadership. The Lancet infectious diseases, 13(6), 529-539. Agyeman, A. A., & Ofori-Asenso, R. (2016). Efficacy and safety profile of linezolid in the treatment of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Annals of clinical microbiology and antimicrobials, 15(1), 41. Bernard, C., Brossier, F., Sougakoff, W., Veziris, N., Frechet-Jachym, M., Metivier, N., … & Jarlier, V. (2013). A surge of MDR and XDR tuberculosis in France among patients born in the Former Soviet Union. Eurosurveillance, 18(33), 20555. Borisov, S. E., Dheda, K., Enwerem, M., Leyte, R. R., D’Ambrosio, L., Centre, R., … & Belilovski, E. (2017). Effectiveness and safety of bedaquiline-containing regimens in the treatment of MDR-and XDR-TB: a multicentre study. European Respiratory Journal, 49(5), 1700387. De Lorenzo, S., Alffenaar, J. W., Sotgiu, G., Centis, R., D’Ambrosio, L., Tiberi, S., … & Spanevello, A. (2013). Efficacy and safety of meropenem–clavulanate added to linezolid-containing regimens in the treatment of MDR-/XDR-TB. European Respiratory Journal, 41(6), 1386-1392. Falzon, D., Gandhi, N., Migliori, G. B., Sotgiu, G., Cox, H. S., Holtz, T. H., … & D’Ambrosio, L. (2013). Resistance to fluoroquinolones and second-line injectable drugs: impact on multidrug-resistant TB outcomes. European Respiratory Journal, 42(1), 156-168. Gandhi, N. R., Andrews, J. R., Brust, J. C. M., Montreuil, R., Weissman, D., Heo, M., … & Shah, N. S. (2012). Risk factors for mortality among MDR-and XDR-TB patients in a high HIV prevalence setting. The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 16(1), 90-97. Jain, A., Dixit, P., & Prasad, R. (2012). Pre-XDR & XDR in MDR and Ofloxacin and Kanamycin resistance in non-MDR Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates. Tuberculosis, 92(5), 404-406. Klopper, M., Warren, R. M., Hayes, C., van Pittius, N. C. G., Streicher, E. M., Müller, B., … & Van Helden, P. D. (2013). Emergence and spread of extensively and totally drug-resistant tuberculosis, South Africa. Emerging infectious diseases, 19(3), 449. Kumar, P. (2017). MDR & XDR Tuberculosis. The Indian journal of medical research, 146(4), 550. Sirgel, F. A., Warren, R. M., Böttger, E. C., Klopper, M., Victor, T. C., & Van Helden, P. D. (2013). The rationale for using rifabutin in the treatment of MDR and XDR tuberculosis outbreaks. PLoS One, 8(3), e59414. Skripconoka, V., Danilovits, M., Pehme, L., Tomson, T., Sanders, G., Kummik, T., … & Geiter, L. J. (2013). Delamanid improves outcomes and reduces mortality in multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. European Respiratory Journal, 41(6), 1393-1400. Sotgiu, G., Centis, R., D’Ambrosio, L., Alffenaar, J. W. C., Anger, H. A., Caminero, J. A., … & Schecter, G. F. (2012). Efficacy, safety and tolerability of linezolid containing regimens in treating MDR-TB and XDR-TB: systematic review and meta-analysis. European Respiratory Journal, erj00229-2012. Streicher, E. M., Müller, B., Chihota, V., Mlambo, C., Tait, M., Pillay, M., … & van Helden, P. D. (2012). Emergence and treatment of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis in South Africa. Infection, genetics and evolution, 12(4), 686-694. Tang, S., Tan, S., Yao, L., Li, F., Li, L., Guo, X., & Zhang, Z. (2013). Risk factors for poor treatment outcomes in patients with MDR-TB and XDR-TB in China: retrospective multi-centre investigation. PLoS One, 8(12), e82943. Tang, S., Yao, L., Hao, X., Zhang, X., Liu, G., Liu, X., … & Gu, J. (2015). Efficacy, safety and tolerability of linezolid for the treatment of XDR-TB: a study in China. European Respiratory Journal, 45(1), 161-170. Tiberi, S., De Lorenzo, S., Centis, R., Viggiani, P., D’Ambrosio, L., & Migliori, G. B. (2014). Bedaquiline in MDR/XDR-TB cases: first experience on compassionate use. European Respiratory Journal, 43(1), 289-292. Tiberi, S., Payen, M. C., Sotgiu, G., D’Ambrosio, L., Guizado, V. A., Alffenaar, J. W., … & Gaga, M. (2016). Effectiveness and safety of meropenem/clavulanate-containing regimens in the treatment of MDR-and XDR-TB. European Respiratory Journal, 47(4), 1235-1243

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