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Importance Of Neuroimaging Techniques

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Importance Of Neuroimaging Techniques Question: Discuss about the Clinical Importance Of Neuroimaging Techniques.     Answer: Clinical Importance Of Neuroimaging Techniques Neurological deaths have become an issue globally; this is due to the increase in the number of neurological disorders. Researchers have developed neuroimaging techniques to curb or reduce the number of deaths. Neuroimaging also called brain imaging techniques include the following magnetic resonance imaging, electroencephalography, magnetoencephalography, near-infrared spectroscopy and chromatography scan. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been used by clinicians to check for the extent of brain damage caused by trauma. The abrupt increase in brain injuries caused by trauma has been approved to have affected most people globally with about 100 to 550 per 100,000 people annually (Vos et al., 2012, p.207-219).  In MRI scan the patient head is laid on a machine which uses strong magnets and radio frequency which is later sent to the computer. It shows if the brain tissue is damaged or if there is bleeding in the brain or a nerve injury. Sometimes a dye is given through a vein before the scan is performed to show pictures of the brain more clearly.MRI has also been used by clinicians to check for brain tumors in the brain. Cancer has become a major problem affecting individuals globally. The major common signs and symptoms of a tumor include disorder in the movement of the limb, lack of sensation in some parts of the body, vision and speech disturbance (Kimura et al., 2013, p.233-238). Contrast agents have been used to visualize clearly the size, vasculature, and hemorrhage within the tumors since this features cannot be seen with formal imaging. MRI has also been used to check for cancer in its early stages, it has been used to check for a mass if the client has been showing signs that my call for a tumor and the stage of the client’s cancer and lastly plan for treatment of the client (Gilles et al., 2012, p.633-638). MRI has been used to check for lesions in the brain and spinal cord caused by multiple sclerosis, which is known to have been caused by demyelination of the nerves of the central nervous system which is considered to be an autoimmune disorder. White matter in the brain and spinal cord is known to be affected most. The symptoms of multiple sclerosis include fatigue which gets worse after exercising; vision problems or sometimes a temporary loss of vision, partial or total lack of sensation, problems with movements and neuropathic pain.MRI has been used for examination, identifying the nature or cause of the disease and treatment of multiple sclerosis (Gallagher et al., 2013, p.439-441). It’s the most used imaging technique for a patient with multiple sclerosis.MRI has been used to show lesions in the corpus callosum. Clients with multiple sclerosis manifest with a large number white matter plaques.  MRI has been used in the diagnosis of dementia; this scan is usually done to rule out other diseases that may have the same signs and symptoms. Dementia is a gradual decrease in mental ability which affects the intellectual process. The signs and symptoms include memory loss, difficulty in communication, a decrease in the reasoning and judgment (Breteler et al., 2014, p.1246-1252). Dementia is due to damage to the brain cells which affects the ability of other brain cells to transmit information to each other.   Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) is a method used in evaluating the brains behavior. It functions by observing the blood flow in the brain that occurs after a neuronal activity. The brain consumes more oxygen during its active state hence increased blood flow to the area. fMRI has been used to show the areas in the brain that are connected during the mental process (Decety et al., 2013). Its advantages are that it does not involve any radiation and it has the best temporal resolution. Researchers have used fMRI to try to understand the cognitive process whereby the past experience is remembered, understand the language, pain and the ability to gain knowledge or skills. Physicians use fMRI to observe the anatomy of the brain to find out the parts of the brain that are dealing with vital functions such as cognition, oral communication, change in position or location and sensation. It has also been used to assess the effects that are caused by stroke. It has also been used to observe the development of brain tumors. It has also been used by the surgeons as a guide during surgical treatments of the brain.   Computer Tomography Scan Computed tomography (CT) is done by a specific x-ray that brings forth double images of the inside body. A CT scanner is a equipment with a hole or tunnel in the middle where the patient rests in a supine position on a table like structure which later slides into the tunnel. Inside the tunnels, there are rotating x-ray tubes. CT scans have been used to check for head injuries that might have been caused by road accidents, check for bleeding in the brain that might have been caused by trauma and tumors in the brain (Hitoshi et al., 2016). It has also helped the doctor to determine the nature of the tumor and plan radiation treatment for the brain tumor. Ct scan is also used to detect hydrocephalus in patients due to the abnormal increase in the ventricles due to the accumulation of cerebral spinal fluid. It’s also used to check for deformities of the skull such as the frontal nasal dysplasia and facial clefts. Ct scans are also performed in areas of the brain to investigate the tissue or bone damage in patients who had a facial injury and there is a surgical reconstruction of the facial bone. It has also been used to check for hearing problems that might have been caused by damage or disease of the temporal bone. It has also been used by surgeons as a guide during needle insertion to get a tissue sample from the brain.   Position Emission Tomography Scan Position emission tomography which is also called PET scan applies energy that is radiated or transmitted in the form of rays to show the bodies behavior on the cellular level. It is mostly combined with CT and MRI scan to produce three-dimensional high-quality images of the human body (Scheel et al., 2012). While MRI scan shows the structure of the organ PET scan shows the physical appearance of the organ and how it’s functioning inside the body. Investigations such as epilepsy are usually done PET scan which shows the part of the brain that has been affected mostly which later allows the doctor to decide on the best treatment. It can also be used to diagnose Alzheimer this is confirmed by checking the consumption of sugar in specific areas of the brain. PET scans have also been used to disclose the presence of cancer, its spread and development in the brain; it also shows the progress of the chemotherapy treatment. It’s used to check parts in the heart that have been damaged and establish the solution to the circulation problems. Electroencephalogram Test Electroencephalogram (EEG) is a test used to check how the brain produces and transmit electrical impulses. Cells found in the brain transmit information through electrical impulses.EEG is used to detect difficulty with brain activities.EEG recording results usually look like lines in a waveform. Any irregularities in the normal wavy line may be a sign of seizures or other brain disorders. EEG Measurements are used to confirm conditions such as head injury caused by accidents, inflammation of the brain tissues, the brain tumor which interferes with the transmission of brain impulses and insomnia (Sharma et al., 2017, p.90-95). When the patient is in deep coma EEG may be used to check the level of brain activity or during surgery to monitor its activity. It has also been used to confirm brain death due to the absence of electrical impulses in the brain.   Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIR) is used by researchers to check the oxygenation of the brain tissues especially the prefrontal cortex. This has given an opportunity for researchers to check for the brain function such as the ability to concentrate, the power of retaining or recalling recent events and the ability to plan and solve problems. fNIR has been used to observe the human cognitive function. Studies have shown that it can effectively check the concentration level and working memory (Lloyd et al., 2014, p.1264-1267). Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is the most modern technique of evaluating the brain while it actively functions. It does not involve puncturing the skin or entering the body, it’s painless and preferred for all ages. It shows the normal functioning neurons and locates exactly the damaged neurons. It has also been used to check the brains activity example epilepsy or to examine its reaction to the external stimuli example language or vision (Mathiak et al., 2012, p.125-131). It evaluates neuronal action directly and its electrical activity millisecond by millisecond. For individual with epilepsy MEG has helped to locate exactly the root of the epileptic discharges with exception of introduction of electronic electrodes. Position Emission Tomography Positron emission tomography (PET) uses little amount radioactive materials a special camera and computer to check for organ and tissue function. It’s often used to identify the disease in its early onset, detection of cancers and check whether it has spread to other brain tissues and plan chemotherapy treatment (Bergerson et al., 2012, p.136-141). It has also been used to diagnose neurological disorders and evaluate circulation of blood, oxygen consumption and glucose metabolism in the brain.       References     Bergerson M, et al., (2012). Head fixation device for reproducible position alignment in transmission CT and positron emission tomography. J Comput Assist Tomogr ed 5. pg: 136-141. Breteler M. et al., (2014). Cerebral white matter lesions, vascular risk factors and cognitive function in a population-based study. Neurology ed 44. Pg: 1246–1252. Decety J., Skelly L. R., Kiehl K. A. (2013). Brain response to empathy-eliciting scenarios involving pain incarcerated individuals with psychopathy. Gallagher HL, MacManus DG, Webb SL, Miller DH (2013). A reproducible repositioning method for serial magnetic resonance imaging studies of the brain in treatment trials for multiple sclerosis. ed 7. Pg: 439–441. Gilles R., Guinebretiere JM., Toussaint C (2012). Locally advanced breast cancer: contrast-enhanced subtraction MR imaging of response to preoperative chemotherapy. ed 191 pg: 633-638. Hitoshi Y. el al., (2016) Head computed tomographic measurement as a predictor of outcome in patients with subdural hematoma with cerebral edema.  Kimura H. et al., (2013) Tumor vascularity in the brain: evaluation with dynamic susceptibility-contrast MR imaging. Medline ed189 pg: 233–238. Lloyd-Fox, S., Papademetriou, M., Darboe, M. K., Everdell, N. L., Wegmuller (2014) noninvasive, infrared monitoring of cerebral and myocardial oxygen sufficiency and circulation parameters. Pg: 1264-1267. Mathiak K, Hertrich I, Lutzenberger W, Ackermann H, (2013) Encoding of temporal speech features (formant transients) during binaural and dichotic stimulus application: a whole-head magnetoencephalography study; Crossref, Medline ed 10 pg: 125–131  Scheel V et al., (2012) MR-based attenuation correction for PET/MR: a novel approach combining pattern recognition and atlas registration. Shahram M. et al., (2017) Prevalence and Risk Factors for Early Seizure in Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury: Analysis from National Trauma Data Bank. Neurocritical Care vol (27)(1), pg: 90-95. Vos P. et al., (2012) EFNS guideline on mild traumatic brain injury:report of an EFNS task force. Eur J Neurol ed 9 pg: 207–219.

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