All your Writing needs covered

Forensic Toxic 5 Human Growth Hormone

Calculate the price
your order:

275 words
Approximate price
$ 0.00

Forensic Toxic 5 Human Growth Hormone Question: Discuss about the Forensic Toxic 5 Human Growth Hormone.     Answer: One of the major challenges facing the regulation of drug use at the 2000 Olympic Games was the detection of substances such as growth hormone. This paper investigates the Human Growth Hormone (HGH) or Somatotropin on brief review of this substance detailing its pharmacological action and a comprehensive discussion of what is considered appropriate approach to somatotropin’s detection in human specimens.   HGH is secreted by the pituitary gland. It shoots growth in children and adolescents. It further helps in the regulation of body fluids, body composition, muscle growth, bone growth, fat and sugar metabolism and function. Somatotropin is a protein-hormone of around one-ninety amino acids which is synthesized and subsequently secreted by somatotrophs cells in anterior pituitary. It plays a key role in controlling various multifaceted physiologic processes such as metabolism and growth (Brouwers et al., 2014). It is further of a substantial interest as a substance or drug in humans. The direct effects physiologically of HGH is that outcome of HGH binding respective receptor on the cells (target).  Adipocytes (fat cells) for instance have HGH receptors, and HGH stimulates them to decompose triglyceride as well as suppress their abilities to absorb and amass mingling lipids. The indirect effects physiologically of HGH remain mainly mediated by an insulin-kind growth factor-I (IGF-I). This hormone is secreted from liver alongside other tissues in reaction to HGH. HGH’s growth endorsing effects is majorly because of IGF-I working on its corresponding cells (target). In terms of growth effects, the primary role of HGH in the stimulation of the body growth by stimulating liver alongside additional tissues to secret IGF-I. IGF-I subsequently stimulates the proliferation of chondrocytes resulting in growth of bone. HGH has direct effect on growth of bone in stimulating differentiation of chondrocytes. IGF-I is a key player in muscle growth via the stimulation of both proliferation and differentiation of myoblasts. IGF-I further stimulates amino acid absorption alongside synthesis of protein in muscles and additional tissues. GH has key metabolic effects on protein, lipids and carbohydrates metabolism (Lewis et al., 2015). In protein metabolism, HGH stimulates protein anabolism in various tissues which is manifested in increased amino acid absorption, surged synthesis of protein and declined protein oxidation. In fat metabolism, HGH boosts the use of fat via the stimulation of triglyceride decomposition as well as oxidation in adipocytes. In carbohydrate metabolism, HGH serves in the maintenance of blood glucose within a regular level. HGH is usually has anti-insulin since it overwhelms insulin ability to stimulate glucose absorption in the peripheral tissues and boost synthesis of glucose in liver (Van-Helden, Hermsen, Von-Ahsen & Bidlingmaier, 2014). Paradoxically, HGH administration stimulates secretion of insulin, culminating in hyperinsulinemia. HGH acts on somatic growth and tissue maintenance. These action are mediated by a secreted protein called IGF-I whose gene expression is swiftly and strongly induced by HGH by unknown means.    The use of HGH as a performance enhancing substance in sports has caught public attention. The use of HMH amongst athletes make them feel less tired and hence athletes can perform better. HGH also speeds up and lessens recovery time which benefits athletes irrespective of what sport they are competing in or how long they compete (Fisher, Rosenfeld, Jaron-Mendelson, Amitzi, Koren & Hart, 2017). The athletes turn to HGH in hopes that it will keep them looking and feeing youthful. However, experts have warned against such hopes as unfounded. And worse, experts warn that HGH products can be quite harmful to one’s body (Gonzalez, Windram, Sathyapalan, Javed, Clark & Atkin, 2017). The high uses and abuses of HGH have been acknowledged. The synthetic HGH was developed and subsequently approved in 1985 for particular usage in adults and children by FDA. In kids, HGH injections are approved for the treatment of short stature of unknown triggers and poor growth because of an array of medical causes: HGH deficiency/insufficiency, kids born small for gestational age, chronic kidney disease, Prader-Willi Syndrome and Turner’s syndrome. Among adults, HGH is approved for: muscle-wasting disease linked to HIV/AIDS, HGH deficiency as a result of rare pituitary tumors and short bowel syndrome. However, the most common HGH usage are never FDA-approved. Certain individuals use HGH, alongside additional performance-boosting substances like anabolic steroids to build muscle as well as enhance athletic performance. But the effect of HGH on athletic performance remains unknown (Deal et al., 2013). Due to the level of HGH in the body which naturally drops with age, the so-called anti-aging specialists have speculated as well as claimed that HGH products might revert age-linked bodily deterioration (Meyer, Burgos-Robles, Liu, Correia & Goosens, 2014). However, such claims, also, remain unproven. The HGH use for anti-aging is never FDA-approved. The HGH’s side effects and hazards must be understood. The possible HGH side effects entail nerve, muscle or joint pain; swelling because of fluid in tissues (edema); carpal tunnel syndrome; higher levels of cholesterol; and numbness and skin tingling. It can also surge risks of diabetes hence contributing to cancerous tumors growth (Owen, Mangelsdorf & Kliewer, 2015).      HGH is both harmful and beneficial for healthy adults. Studies on healthy adults who take HGH are scarce. Albeit it seems that HGH can boost muscle mass and decrease the body fat levels in healthy elderly (Bennett, 2013). The rise in muscle does not translate into boosted strength. It is never clear if HGH could provide additional benefits to healthy adults.  Testing: Both blood and drug test are used to detect the presence of synthetic HGH in body. The urine test is not enough as it cannot detect HGH. Further, HGH presence cannot be detected after 72 hours from time of its use via a blood test. This implies that athletes must undergo through required HGH test like blood test within 72 hours to positively detect HGH.  The best approach is for NBA, MLS, NFL, Olympics, MLB, and NCAA to undertake random HGH testing. This will bar athletes from knowing when they will undergo the test. Informing athletes about the dates and time of test will mean, they will stop using supplements leading to misdiagnoses.   References Bennett, R. (2013). Growth Hormone Deficiency in Fibromyalgia. Brouwers, B., de Faudeur, G., Osipovich, A. B., Goyvaerts, L., Lemaire, K., Boesmans, L., … & Van Schoors, J. (2014). Impaired islet function in commonly used transgenic mouse lines due to human growth hormone minigene expression. Cell metabolism, 20(6), 979-990. Deal, C. L., Tony, M., Höybye, C., Allen, D. B., Tauber, M., Christiansen, J. S., & 2011 Growth Hormone in Prader-Willi Syndrome Clinical Care Guidelines Workshop Participants. (2013). Growth Hormone Research Society workshop summary: consensus guidelines for recombinant human growth hormone therapy in Prader-Willi syndrome. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 98(6), E1072-E1087. Fisher, D. M., Rosenfeld, R. G., Jaron-Mendelson, M., Amitzi, L., Koren, R., & Hart, G. (2017). Supplementary Material for: Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Modeling of MOD-4023, a Long-Acting Human Growth Hormone, in Growth Hormone Deficiency Children. Gonzalez, S., Windram, J. D., Sathyapalan, T., Javed, Z., Clark, A. L., & Atkin, S. L. (2017). Effects of human recombinant growth hormone on exercise capacity, cardiac structure, and cardiac function in patients with adult-onset growth hormone deficiency. Journal of International Medical Research, 0300060517723798. Lewis, A. L., Jordan, F., Patel, T., Jeffery, K., King, G., Savage, M., … & Illum, L. (2015). Intranasal Human Growth Hormone (hGH) Induces IGF-1 Levels Comparable With Subcutaneous Injection With Lower Systemic Exposure to hGH in Healthy Volunteers. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 100(11), 4364-4371. Meyer, R. M., Burgos-Robles, A., Liu, E., Correia, S. S., & Goosens, K. A. (2014). A ghrelin–growth hormone axis drives stress-induced vulnerability to enhanced fear. Molecular psychiatry, 19(12), 1284-1294. Owen, B. M., Mangelsdorf, D. J., & Kliewer, S. A. (2015). Tissue-specific actions of the metabolic hormones FGF15/19 and FGF21. Trends in Endocrinology & Metabolism, 26(1), 22-29. Van Helden, J., Hermsen, D., Von Ahsen, N., & Bidlingmaier, M. (2014). Performance evaluation of a fully automated immunoassay for the detection of human growth hormone on the Elecsys immunoassay system. Clinical laboratory, 60(10), 1641-1651.

Basic features

  • Free title page and bibliography
  • Unlimited revisions
  • Plagiarism-free guarantee
  • Money-back guarantee
  • 24/7 support

On-demand options

  • Writer's samples
  • Part-by-part delivery
  • Overnight delivery
  • Copies of used sources
  • Expert Proofreading

Paper format

  • 275 words per page
  • 12pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, CHicago/Turabian, Havard)

Guaranteed originality

We guarantee 0% plagiarism! Our orders are custom made from scratch. Our team is dedicated to providing you academic papers with zero traces of plagiarism.

Affordable prices

We know how hard it is to pay the bills while being in college, which is why our rates are extremely affordable and within your budget. You will not find any other company that provides the same quality of work for such affordable prices.

Best experts

Our writer are the crème de la crème of the essay writing industry. They are highly qualified in their field of expertise and have extensive experience when it comes to research papers, term essays or any other academic assignment that you may be given!

Calculate the price of your order

You will get a personal manager and a discount.
We'll send you the first draft for approval by at
Total price:

Expert paper writers are just a few clicks away

Place an order in 3 easy steps. Takes less than 5 mins.

error: Content is protected !!
Open chat
Need Homework Help? Let's Chat
Need Help With Your Assignment? Lets Talk