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Diversity In Changing Organizational Context

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Diversity In Changing Organizational Context Question: Discuss about the Diversity in Changing Organizational Context.     Answer: Introduction: Patient safety can be defined as the maintenance of the procedure by which hospitals as well as other healthcare centers protect the lives of their patients from errors, accidents, injuries, infections and others. Some of the important activities that accounts for patient safety are the delivery of proper service by the healthcare professionals, proper management of the administrative body of the centers, right amount of resource allocation by the boards of directors and the account system and others (Ammouri et al., 2015).  The activities of the healthcare professionals also play a very vital role. Researchers over the decades have stated that proper cultural competency and adequate amount of nursing skills, competency and training ensure patient safety. The following assignment will mainly depict journal articles which will help to prove the claim made and thereby help to decrease the chances of patient harm in hospitals and increasing patient safety. Self-Assessment Of Cultural Competency Study 1- (A mixed method study of nurse’s self assessment of cultural competency)- The research by Alpers & Hanssen, (2014) aimed to investigate how nurse assessed their culturally competency to deal with patients from different background. As majority of nurses tend to lack cultural competency, the study findings showed that knowledge about illness and treatment philosophies does not enhance cultural competency in nurses, it is dependent on knowledge of intercultural systems and culturally competent care. Engaging in emotional labor to handle culturally sensitive patient- Study 1: (Dispensing emotions- Norwegian community nurse’s handling of diversity in organizational context)- The qualitative research by Debesay et al., (2014) utilized the concept of emotional labour to identify whether nurse can handle ethnic minority patients in the context of pressures. The findings gave the indication that language barriers and unfamiliar cultural traditions challenges nurses in dealing with minority patients. The demand for efficiency in professional work and time constraints also affects the nurse ability to deal with minority patients. Hence, organizational changes is required to develop the confidence of nurses in handling culturally sensitive situations. Implementation of cultural competence skills program to handle culturally sensitive patient: Study 1: (The effectiveness of cultural competence program on ethnic minority patient-centered health care- a systematic review)- The systematic review by Renzah et al., (2013) gave the idea that effect of patient-centered care model on improving cultural competence in health care staffs. It was found to have positive effects on staffs as the program increased their knowledge about cultural sensitivity. Study 2: (Cultural and language difference as a barrier to provisions of quality care by workforce in Saudi Arabia)- The research by Almutairi, (2015) aimed to identify the challenges in faced by workforce due cultural and language difference in Saudi Arabia. The main findings of the research was that lack of cultural competency, was the main reason for difficulties and cultural shock.   Inadequate Competency In Nursing Hampers Patient Safety Failure in certain competencies like social skills, expertise, experience as well as priority setting: Study 1: According to Kieft et al. (2013), social skills of the nurses are very important in developing a trustful care relationship. Social skills like proper behavior and attitude, composure, allocating proper time for patients, having empathy and listening to patients attentively develop a sense of commitment to patients which help in meeting expectations of patients. In domain of expertise and experience communicative capabilities, technical skills and nursing knowledge are believed to develop expertise and also earn them experience. These will help them to provide state of art interventions or activities. Failure in them will lead the nurses to take wrong treatment plan and will not make them critically analyze the situation. This will hamper patient safety. Moreover nurses who also fail to set their priorities among the various roles and responsibilities that have to maintain every day, also becomes a reason for patient quality deterioration. Lack of proper training of the nurses lead to harm in patient safety Study 1: Often patients admitted to emergency departments require the collaborative activity of a number of health professionals to make a rapid and proper treatment of the patients and thereby help him recover from any sort of adverse situation. However, inadequate teamwork may lead to miscommunication and issue in role clarity o each of the nurses and professionals, which might hamper the patient safety. Therefore, researchers like Klipfel et al. (2014) are of the opinion that effective team based training of nurses in application of care in a collaborative approach is very much necessary in attending the adverse situations. They have suggested that education strategy of in situ simulation training is found to be extremely helpful for building interdisciplinary teamwork as well as nursing staff confidence in managing emergency situations. They have also explained that for the proper implementation of effective teamwork would require not only team training but also training which is instituted interdependently with proper fair and just culture as well as visible engaged leadership. Inadequate nursing skills lead to hamper in patient safety: Study 1: A research paper was published by researchers Aiken et al. (2016) explaining the importance of nursing skill for marinating patient safety. They had conducted a quantitative study where they have shown that richer nurse skill mix that were composed of mostly nursing professionals with adequate training, expertise and experience was associated mostly with lower rates of mortality, low hospital ratings of patients in their feedback form, lower reports of poorer quality, poor safety grades and poor outcomes. On the other hand poor nurse skill mix which complained mainly of low paid untrained nursing associates and healthcare staffs who had low knowledge, expertise, training and experience were related to high mortality rates in preventable deaths and poor ratings in quality care, low quality and patient harm. Therefore this study proves that nurses should undergo professional development and completing of their training procedures for being fully skilled and hospitals hold appoint nurses with proper degrees and do not settle with nursing individuals with low or incomplete qualification to meet their resource restraints as that might harm lives of patients. Conclusion: The review of literature on the theme of culturally sensitive care and impact of low competencies on patient safety gave many important implications for nursing practice development. The key strength of the study is that it informs about the skills and knowledge that is necessary for nurse to handle culturally sensitive patients and enhance their safety. The element of regular self-assessment for cultural competency, implementation of competence skills training and providing emotional labors was found as a factor to satisfy patient and enhance patient safety. However, there are certain limitations of the literature review too. For instance Almutairi, (2015) did not covered all communications barriers that affect patient safety and delivery of culturally sensitive care. In some studies, the generalization of findings became difficult because of low sample size and difference between years of experience and competency level of nursing staffs. Hence, year of experience can significantly affect the outcome of research and considering this factor was important. Therefore, to develop the clinical skills of nurse in providing quality care, more studies is needed to investigate improvements needed in nursing education as well as training needs during clinical practice.   Reference Almutairi, K. M. (2015). Culture and language differences as a barrier to provision of quality care by the health workforce in Saudi Arabia. Saudi medical journal, 36(4), 425. Alpers, L. M., & Hanssen, I. (2014). Caring for ethnic minority patients: A mixed method study of nurses’ self-assessment of cultural competency. Nurse education today, 34(6), 999-1004. Ammouri, A. A., Tailakh, A. K., Muliira, J. K., Geethakrishnan, R., & Al Kindi, S. N. (2015). Patient safety culture among nurses. International nursing review, 62(1), 102-110. Debesay, J., Harsløf, I., Rechel, B., & Vike, H. (2014). Dispensing emotions: Norwegian community nurses’ handling of diversity in a changing organizational context. Social science & medicine, 119, 74-80. Griffiths, P., Ball, J., Drennan, J., James, L., Jones, J., Recio, A., & Simon, M. (2014). The association between patient safety outcomes and nurse/healthcare assistant skill mix and staffing levels and factors that may influence staffing requirements. Kieft, R. A., de Brouwer, B. B., Francke, A. L., & Delnoij, D. M. (2014). How nurses and their work environment affect patient experiences of the quality of care: a qualitative study. BMC health services research, 14(1), 249. Klipfel, J. M., Carolan, B. J., Brytowski, N., Mitchell, C. A., Gettman, M. T., & Jacobson, T. M. (2014). Patient safety improvement through in situ simulation interdisciplinary team training. Urologic nursing, 34(1), 39. Renzaho, A. M. N., Romios, P., Crock, C., & Sønderlund, A. L. (2013). The effectiveness of cultural competence programs in ethnic minority patient-centered health care—a systematic review of the literature. International Journal for Quality in Health Care, 25(3), 261-269.

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