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COIT 20248 Designing Hospital Information Systems

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COIT 20248 Designing Hospital Information Systems Question: Please read the paper below (pdf on LEO) and answer the eight following questions. Sundquist, K., Qvist, J., Johansson, SE., Sundquist, J. (2005). The long-term effect of physical activity on  incidence of coronary heart disease   1. What study design did this study employ 2. What was the data source used to identify first events of coronary heart disease 3. Why did the authors exclude 1894 participants who rated their general health as “poor” 4. What was the crude overall incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) (max 10 words)? 5. What was the relative risk for coronary heart disease of study participants that engaged in vigorous exercise at least twice a week compared to those not doing any physical activity 6. How would you interpret the relative risk in question 7. What do you think would be the major confounders that were not considered in this study? To answer this question, you need to read about the major classical risk factors for CHD. Answer: Part A  Answer 1: The study design of the study is the identification in context to the inactive individuals in context to the dimensions of the physical activity. The Cox regression model was inherited in this study. Answer 2: The source for the identification of the coronary heart disease was pain, numbness, weakness, nausea and heartburn. There were several other sources of identification which includes sensation in the back, upper abdomen, shoulders and pain in chest. Answer 3: The participants were excluded because there health index was below average. There mass index was not normal. Answer 4: The CHD incidence in context to the risk factors was 2889 in men and 3803 in women. The age groups in context to women ranged from 30 to 74 years.   Answer 5: The relative risks in context to the coronary disease were the low cholesterol rates and concentration. The cross section study showed that vigorous exercise led to the fatal CHD and myocardial infarction in the coming period. Answer 6:  the relative risk was the rise in the cholesterol rates in context to persisting vigorous exercise. However, there were exercises that reduced the relative risk. The exercises were running, rowing and weight training. For example, males who smoke arm or adhered in context to coronal diseases. Answer 7: The major confounders that were e not incorporated in this study was hypertension, depression, smoking, anxiety, psychological distress and job strain. Answer 8: The major barrier was that the study was organized in two dimensions. This was the main reason. They only targeted the inactive individuals but the active individuals are also vulnerable to the coronary diseases. Part B Answer1: The study was conducted in context to the general public. The subjects adhered were mostly the patients and the attendants of the hospital. The general public was questioned on the basis of their intake of multivitamins. Answer 2: The data was collected through the primary data collection method. Several survey questions were prepared by the researcher. In which 120 individuals were investigated about the usage of the multivitamins. The data collected gave the figures of the number of males and females. The questionnaire involved questions related to the intake of the multivitamins. The data also gave rise to the fact that the individuals had no ideas about the water soluble and fat soluble vitamins. The excess of the fat soluble vitamins gives rise to the hyper-vitaminosis D and excess of vitamin k leads to the clotting of blood. On the other hand water soluble vitamins cannot be stored in the body expect for vitamin B12.  Answer 3: It was found out that 54 were females and 66 were males. 82 of the total participants took multivitamins. Among them 57 people took them in context to the doctor’s advice, 12.1% on their friends and family member’s advice. Answer 4: Most of population thought that multivitamins did not cause harm as they were not aware of the ill effects of the drug. The percentage included of 70.96%. Answer 5: These researchers are based in context to the researches done by the researcher in terms of the survey methods, questionnaires and secondary data collection method. Part C Answer 1: The authors have conducted research in context to the cardiovascular mortality and the relation between water quality and the cardio vascular deaths. The main cause of the deaths was the concentration in terms of the magnesium and calcium in drinking water. It has been established by the study that been done in south of France. The study was conducted in relation to the ill effects of calcium depositions in the water source. Answer 2: The dose response relationship generally refers to the effect that an organism experiences which are caused by different exposure levels after a certain period of time. In this regard, the water source was the dose relation with the deaths taking place. The elder generation could not bear the exposure of calcium and magnesium in their drinking water. The lack of sanitation in the various divided zones was also a profound problem. The computation was done in context to the values of the concentrations and drinking water. The data was available in terms of 69 communities. The magnesium was adhered protective in this context. Answer 3: Two main strengths of this study- The first strength of this study is that the researchers divided the zones in various numbers to obtain accurate results. The checking of the water source and exposure was done separately for the various divisions. They conducted two surveys to measure the ph values and the chemical concentrations. The routine measurements were entailed for water sources. The computation was subjected for each of the zones. The hourly flow of water and contribution of the water sources were recorded. The researches excluded the communities on the basis of the changes in terms of the water distribution.  Six of the communities have been eliminated due to the changes in the water distribution. Two weaknesses of the study The main weakness was that the data was available only for the 69 communities. Accuracy of the data was needed to perform the actions. The points were based in context to the tertile values. The division of the data was needed to be incorporated in more than 3 groups for better results. This division only gave one third of each group data. More planning and checking of the resources was needed to ensure the quality of the data collection method. Answer 4: Calcium supplements are common in context to the elders. Age groups in or above 65 are already vulnerable to the cardiovascular diseases. The calcium supplements make it even worse and if the drinking water has calcium exposure than it becomes more susceptible to the health of the elders. However the deficiency of magnesium leads to vascular diseases. It is ethical in terms of calcium as it constitutes the properties of cardio vascular diseases. The extended amount of calcium causes deaths. References  Ahmed EA, Elsayed DH, Kilany OE, El-Beltagy MA. Multivitamins preventive therapy against subclinical endometritis in buffaloes: its correlation to NEFA and oxidative stress. Reproductive biology. 2017 Sep 1;17(3):239-45. Khera AV, Emdin CA, Drake I, Natarajan P, Bick AG, Cook NR, Chasman DI, Baber U, Mehran R, Rader DJ, Fuster V. Genetic risk, adherence to a healthy lifestyle, and coronary disease. New England Journal of Medicine. 2016 Dec 15;375(24):2349-58. Pilchman D, Howard C. Dietary Supplements: Ethical Issues. Encyclopedia of Food and Agricultural Ethics. 2016:1-8. Schuler MS, Relyea RA. A Review of the Combined Threats of Road Salts and Heavy Metals to Freshwater Systems. BioScience. 2018 Mar 7;68(5):327-35. Deshpande LS, Blair RE, Phillips KF, DeLorenzo RJ. Role of the calcium plateau in neuronal injury and behavioral morbidities following organophosphate intoxication. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2016 Jun 1;1374(1):176-83. Stanley MC, Beggs JR, Bassett IE, Burns BR, Dirks KN, Jones DN, Linklater WL, Macinnis-Ng C, Simcock R, Souter-Brown G, Trowsdale SA. Emerging threats in urban ecosystems: a horizon scanning exercise. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. 2015 Dec;13(10):553-60. Pokrywczynska M, Czapiewska M, Jundzill A, Bodnar M, Balcerczyk D, Kloskowski T, Nowacki M, Marszalek A, Drewa T. Optimization of porcine urothelial cell cultures: Best practices, recommendations, and threats. Cell biology international. 2016 Jul; 40(7):812-20. Vincent TR, Avramova M, Canham J, Higgins P, Bilkey N, Mugford ST, Pitino M, Toyota M, Gilroy S, Miller TJ, Hogenhout S. Interplay of plasma membrane and vacuolar ion channels, together with BAK1, elicits rapid cytosolic calcium elevations in Arabidopsis during aphid feeding. The Plant Cell. 2017 Jan 1:tpc-00136.

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