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Challenges In Implementation Of Cervical Cancer Screening Methods In India

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Challenges In Implementation Of Cervical Cancer Screening Methods In India Question: Describe about the Report for Challenges in Implementation of Cervical Cancer Screening Methods in India.   Answer: Introduction Cervical cancer is a menace in India whereby in 53 women one happens to be diagnosed with this cancer. More than 75,000 new cases of cervical cancer were reported in India in 2013. The growing concern is that women in between the age of 15 to 50 years count for more than 39% of the reported cases. The biggest challenge emanates from the financial constraints more so the high-cost associated with the treatment of cancer (Singh, Badaya, & Hussain, 2015). Ironically, the country has stagnated in the fight and prevention of cervical cancer between 1980  and 2013: In 1980 in a 100 reported cases of cancer 37 of them passed away compared to 2013 where out of 100 cases 32 women were pronounced dead. Among women the death rates increase is due to the 71% rise in the cervical cancer cases in recent years. Cervical cancer survival rate depends on the stages: Women diagnosed with stage III cervical cancer have a higher survival rate than those in stage IV although less than 33% of them survive (S. & M.V., 2016). Methods This paper depends on data assembled from meeting presentations; peer-reviewed articles, white papers and even unpublished work of different writers on the subject of challenges of implementation and treatment of cervical cancer in India. More so the government run programs focusing on cervical cancer prevention in the southern condition of Tamil Nadu are analyzed. The various process involved in cervical cancer were examined such as early recognition, immunization of Human papillomavirus (HPV), visual examination,  and  HPV screening. The gray writing was got through using as a part of investigating references of distributed papers, Google’s web index and seeking Web-based report archives. Reports and articles were evaluated to attain the main issues as well as challenges in cervical cancer prevention. Primary Prevention Through HPV Vaccination and Challenges Associated with it Information reviewed illustrates that treatment as well as screening while coupled with HPV vaccination has to bore positive results although there are challenges accompanying it. More than 71% of the cervical cancer are caused by HPV in India. HPV immunization in India faces the challenge of not much investigation and research has been done on it (Kulkarni, Rani, Vimalambike, & Ravishankar, 2013). A personal study in the conditions of Andhra Pradesh as well as Gujarat investigated HPV immunization and identified three potential methods: Youth health cancer prevention management, the current national vaccination program, family and group centered vaccination. The study determined that for the vaccination procedure to be successful various things ought to be done. They include collaboration of both the government and nongovernment organization, family support, community and affiliate groups involvement. Following the certain study, challenges were discovered such as the limited staff as well as financial pressure to get the latest facilities (Labani, Asthana, Bhambhani, Sodhani, & Gupta, 2014). Also, research in Southern India showed that women that had not reached puberty were discouraged from taking HPV immunization. The general opinion was that it would have negative effective in their later life since they were not yet adults (Katyal & Mehrotra, 2011). The HPV immunization has faced opposition from media. Although positive messages from scholars have lessened the fight, ignorance from some writers brought about the wrong idea on it. Specialist and women rights representatives have done much to give awareness to women in different areas especially in remote areas with little information on the same (Lu, 2012). They have Challenged the government to provide more facilities that are advanced as well as far-reaching in the fight against cancer including cervical cancer. However, some are opposed to HPV immunization through raising a red flag on the availability of enough information and the government intentions in doing so through scholars articles (Panicker, Chitra, & Priyadharshini, 2015). The government endorsed the project, unfortunately, did little to refute the claims through the death of four young girls enlisted in the government endorsed program in Southern India (Gossa, 2015). HPV immunization discussed in India raise a few issues in future inoculation endeavors. The post-vaccination outcomes and the requirement to be screened as well as immunized was subject to the questioning. The Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat study found that in spite of the fact that rules were accessible for postimmunization unfortunate event administration, frequently they were not taken after. Moreover, the contrasting elucidations of the information on HPV vaccination wellbeing among women and health specialist activists, clinicians, general welfare experts, and writers recommends that a more friendly correspondence system that is expected to shatter proof in the backing of inoculation (Goodman, 2013). Examination ought to distinguish viable approaches to convey data on the immunizations, including an attention on pre-adult young ladies, adequacy, and the requirement for screening of cervical cancer for the adults. India’s HPV inoculation strategy costs and the expected add-ons on the costs raised eyebrows (Misiri, 2014). The government had to invest heavily on the HPV vaccination as well as compensations for the women that risked their lives to get the results. Although vaccination was random the outcome differed depending on the reaction of the women bodies.Screening Consolidating Immunization (SCI) was savvy as per WHO benchmarks for creating nations at an antibody expense of US$2 per measurements or less (Dreyer, Mnisi, & Maphalala, 2013). Secondary Or Auxiliary Prevention Through Screening Auxiliary prevention of cervical cancer can be useful in reducing the spread of cancerous cells and consequently reduce the mortality rate. In developed countries a considerable reduction in the death of women has been observed such as in the Unite States of America screening has been a testimony for those that have had it. Screening and testing strategies by the developed countries cannot be compared to a country like India due to the capital investment required (Nikumbh, Nikumbh, & Kanthikar, 2016), for example, cytotechnicians, and pathologists, and executing constant quality affirmation techniques have demonstrated troublesome. Thus, look into has concentrated on assessing visual examination based techniques that utilization existing (or insignificant extra) HR and require less preparing and less center.   Areas of controversy and gaps in literature and formulating questions that need further research As opposed to the developed countries such as the United Kingdom the scale of conducting the testing and screening is done in large scale with a view to long-term results. In India the scale of conducting the testing is small thus comparing it with the developed countries might give misleading information (Wilson, 2014). Also, albeit necessary counteractive action through human papilloma infection (HPV) immunization is picking up acknowledgment in high-salary nations and has been supported by the World Wellbeing Association (WHO), antibody mindfulness, get to, and utilize are low (Moon et al., 2012). Cervical cancer disease identification endeavors seem, by all accounts, to be social affair force.  At the same time, a few state governments chose to do their very own pilot trial NCD avoidance endeavors (Basu et al., 2015). In this connection, research review of the cervical cancer prevention was done to bridge the gap between researchers and educational side of the study. Trial and examined research needs to encourage the interpretation of existing information into productive, viable, and impartial general wellbeing activity (Mugisa, Nerima, Mbusa, Pido, & Edozien, 2013). Recommendations The review identified the need for decentralization of health care, especially in cancer treatment programs. It will allow the women in the interior parts (rural areas) to comfortably access the cervical cancer screening changes and mitigate the chance of the victims from advancing cancer to later stages. It can be through government-initiated programs. There is the need to educate women and increase the general awareness of cervical cancer. When more people are aware of cancer, they can easily counter the effects of the disease or even prevent further advancement for cases in existence. The community and the corporate world ought to be encouraged to contribute towards setting up new clinics and building health units that specifically cater to the cervical cancer patients. This brings a sense of unity in the fight against cancer (Basu et al., 2015). The government needs to increase incentives in cervical cancer prevention programs to allow accessibility of the facilities for all women. This will increase equality for the rich and poor consequently ending exploitation from the private sector. Conclusion The accessibility of essential and auxiliary aversion instruments has hastened worldwide endeavors to avert and control cervical malignancy. In India, the subjective examination has recognized components that impact the plausibility and agreeableness of HPV immunization. Randomized and cross-sectional studies trials have demonstrated that visual investigation based screening methodologies can accomplish affectability as well as particularly equivalent to that of screening of cytology-based, meaning that testing execution by bleeding edge wellbeing specialists and that it can lessen cervical growth frequency and mortality (Asthana, Bhambani, Sodhani, Gupta, & Satyanarayana, 2014). Review of the research science on cervical cancer, which might be characterized by challenges needs combined support from everyone in India.   References Asthana, S., Bhambani, S., Sodhani, P., Gupta, S., & Satyanarayana, L. (2014). A comparative study of cervical cancer screening methods in a rural community setting of North India. Indian Journal Of Cancer, 51(2), 124. Basu, P., Mittal, S., Banerjee, D., Singh, P., Panda, C., & Dutta, S. et al. (2015). Diagnostic accuracy of VIA and HPV detection as primary and sequential screening tests in a cervical cancer screening demonstration project in India. International Journal Of Cancer, 137(4), 859-867. Dreyer, G., Mnisi, E., & Maphalala, A. (2013). Challenges in preventative care and research in primary healthcare facilities: information obtained during implementation of a cervical cancer screening project in the Tshwane Health District. Southern African Journal Of Gynaecological Oncology, 5(sup1), S10-S14. Goodman, A. (2013). The Social Ecology of Cervical Cancer: The Challenges to Pap Smear Screening. International Journal Of Clinical Medicine, 04(12), 16-20. Gossa, W. (2015). Cervical cancer screening education in Ethiopia: Challenges and opportunities. Annals Of Global Health, 81(1), 149-150. Katyal, S. & Mehrotra, R. (2011). Complementary Procedures in Cervical Cancer Screening in Low Resource Settings. J Obstet Gynecol India, 61(4), 436-438. Kulkarni, P., Rani, H., Vimalambike, M., & Ravishankar, S. (2013). Asian Pacific Journal Of Cancer Prevention, 14(9), 5101-5105. Labani, S., Asthana, S., Bhambhani, S., Sodhani, P., & Gupta, S. (2014). Implementation of cervical cancer screening: A demonstration in a rural community of North India. Clin Cancer Investig J, 4(1), 43. Lu, E. (2012). I215 CHALLENGES FOR INCREASING COVERAGE OF CERVICAL CANCER SCREENING. International Journal Of Gynecology & Obstetrics, 119, S215. Misiri, H. (2014). Cervical Cancer Screening Methods. Research, 1. Moon, T., Silva-Matos, C., Cordoso, A., Baptista, A., Sidat, M., & Vermund, S. (2012). Implementation of cervical cancer screening using visual inspection with acetic acid in rural Mozambique: successes and challenges using HIV care and treatment programme investments in Zambézia Province. Journal Of The International AIDS Society, 15(2). Mugisa, E., Nerima, C., Mbusa, K., Pido, B., & Edozien, A. (2013). B116 Implementation of Cervical cancer screening services at 9 IHV/PEPFAR supported ART clinics in Uganda; Successes and challenges. JAIDS Journal Of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 62, S42. Nikumbh, D., Nikumbh, R., & Kanthikar, S. (2016). Limitations of cytological cervical cancer screening (Papanicolaou test) regarding technical and cultural aspect in rural India. South Asian Journal Of Cancer, 5(2), 79. Panicker, S., Chitra, T., & Priyadharshini, V. (2015). Cervical Cancer Screening in India – is there an Upper Age Limit for Screening. Indian Journal Of Public Health Research & Development, 6(3), 83. S., A. & M.V., S. (2016). CLASSIFICATION OF CERVICAL CANCER CELLS IN PAP SMEAR SCREENING TEST. ICTACT Journal On Image And Video Processing, 06(04), 1234-1238. Singh, S., Badaya, S., & Hussain, S. (2015). An urgent need to re-strategize loss to follow up in cervical cancer screening program in India. Journal Of Cancer Policy, 6, 23-24. Wilson, M. (2014). The Challenges of Cervical Cancer Screening. American Journal Of Clinical Pathology, 141(4), 453-453.

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