All your Writing needs covered

Bioscience: Bacteria And Viruses

Calculate the price
your order:

275 words
Approximate price
$ 0.00

Bioscience: Bacteria And Viruses Question: Discuss about the Bioscience for Bacteria and Viruses.   Answer: Introduction: Fever is a condition in which body temperature rises above the normal range of temperature. Normal body temperature is in the range of 37.5 and 38.3°C. In fever temperature rises upto 41°C. Peter is infected with influenza virus. This virus causes inflammation in the infected cells. Due to inflammation there is rise in the prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which acts on the hypothalamus which is a temperature controlling centre of the body and hypothalamus produces response to the body and increase in the body temperature. Influenza infected cells also secrets proilflammatory cytokines like tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interferon. These proinflammatory cytokines also act on hypothalamus and produces fever in the Peter. Fever stimulates immune system – Due to fever there is the stimulation of immune system. In this activated immune system, there are increased and activated CD8+ cytotoxic T cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes act as defense mechanism and eradicate infected viruses.   Fever stimulates mucus formation – In the state of fever, there is the increased formation of mucus. This mucus acts as check point for the entry of microorganisms in the body. With this increased mucus formation, fever helps to prevent entry of microorganisms in the body (Cunha, 2007).  Peter developed sore throat and to prevent allergies generally antibiotics used to be prescribed. Sore throat can be due to bacterial infection also. Hence to cure sore throat, Peter was prescribed with antibiotic phenoxymethylpenicillin. Phenoxymethylpenicillin is a beta-lactum antibiotic. These antibiotics kill bacteria by inhibiting cell growth. Bacterial cell is protected by peptidoglycan, a component of cell wall which provides rigidity and support to the cell wall. This peptidoglycan provide support by cross linking with other peptidoglycan and forming a net like structure. This cross linking is facilitated by enzyme called DD-transpeptidase (penicillin binding protein-PBP). This cross linking repeated several times in the bacterial life cycle. Phenoxymethylpenicillin inhibit bacterial growth by binding to the DD-transpeptidase enzyme, thus crosslinking is inhibited and ultimately bacteria killed (Bullock & Manias, 2014).   Antibiotics generally kill bacteria or retard their growth by interrupting their metabolic process. These processes include cell wall formation in case of penicillin class of antibiotics and protein synthesis in case of streptomycin. As in case of viruses there is no metabolic process, antibiotics doesn’t act on viruses. Moreover, viruses are only protein wrapped DNA molecules and there is no cell wall in the viruses. Also, viruses can survive devoid of metabolic pathway and solely depend on the metabolic pathway of the infected host. Antibiotics cannot act on these host’s metabolic pathways. Hence, antibiotics cannot be used in the viral infection (Lehne et al., 2013). Peter might have contracted influenza virus either inhaling the contaminated air of influenza virus or by direct hand-to-hand contact with the influenza virus. Aerosols produced by the infected person in the size range of 0.5 to 5 µm in diameter can be sufficient to produce infection and one droplet is also enough to produce infection. In hand to hand model virus can be transmitted through banknote, switches, computer keyboard and any other most frequently used articles. Prevention of mode of transmission of influenza virus can be achieved by improving personal hygiene. Personal hygiene comprises of avoiding touch to openings such as mouth, nose and eyes, frequent washing of hands with soap and alcohol, covering at the time of coughing and sneezing, staying away from infected people, avoiding splitting and avoiding smoking. Sanitizing room and environment are the other ways through which influenza can be prevented. Surface sanitization can be done using alcohol and also quaternary ammonium compounds can be used along with alcohol, which produces long duration sanitizing effect (Boland et al., 2011; Lee & Bishop, 2016).   Redness : Sore throat is the most common symptom of influenza infection. Influenza viruses after entry into the body bind to the sialic acid through hemagglutinin on the epithelial cells of throat. This hemagglutinin is cleaved by protease and cell brings in this virus through a process called as endocytosis. Later inflammation is produced in the tissues and produces proinflammatory markers such as TNF-α and interferon. This produces vasodilatation of small blood vessels and increased blood flow to the throat. This results in the redness of throat. Swollen: Infection of influenza virus causes inflammation of the throat. Due to inflammation in the tissues of throat, there is the increased permeability of blood vessels in the throat. This increased permeability of the blood vessels leads to the exudation of plasma proteins and fluid into the tissue and results in the swelling. Hence there is swollen throat observed in the case Peter. Having A Patchy Covering Of Yellow-White Exudates Over His Tonsils: Sore throat is the common symptom of the tonsillitis, which is inflammation of the tonsils mainly caused by infection of viruses. Tonsils are the situated on either side of the back of the throat. Tonsils are the group of lymphatic tissues which helps body fighting against infections and are the first line of defense of immune system. Tonsils possess M cells on their surface which perform function of antigen capture and bring pathogens produced by antigens on its surface. Due to the accumulation and calcification of infected bacteria, dead cells and dirty particles on tonsil pockets or grooves, there is the formation of tonsil stones. These tonsil stones are patchy covering of yellow-white exudates. In case Peter, there is the influenza infection and this leads to the tonsillitis and consequently patchy covering of yellow-white exudates over his tonsils (Craft et al., 2015; Marieb & Hoehn, 2016; Porth & Matfin, 2014; WHO, 2015). Bacteria possesses all the requirements in the form of cell organelles necessary for their growth and multiplication. These requirements include genetic blueprint in the form of DNA and other tools like ribosomes, proteins, etc. Asexual reproduction is the most common method for bacterial replication, however few bacteria reproduce sexually and plasmids genetic material carried among the bacteria. Binary fission is asexual method of reproduction in bacteria which occurred by division of single cell into two cells. There are four phases in the life cycle of bacteria like lag phase, log phase, stationary phase and death phase.   Viruses carry information like RNA or DNA in the form of protein packets and membrane coating. Viruses mainly depend on the host cell for their replication as viruses don’t have their own machinery for replication and lack of active metabolic system. These viruses attach themselves to the host cells with help of their legs and inject genetic material which is present in their head into the host cells. This injected genetic material in the host cell utilizes host cells machinery to produce viruses’ proteins or on the other hand this genetic material get integrated in the host cell’s DNA or RNA and get translated in the future. At a particular time cells exceeds capacity to hold viruses and they burst out. There are six phases in the life cycle of viruses like attachment, penetration, uncoating, replication, assembly and release (Rogers, 2011).   References: Boland, M. (Director), Santall, J. (Presenter), & Video Education Austrlasia. (2011). Infection control in healthcare  [Videorecording]. Bendigo, Australia: VEA.  Bullock, S., & Manias, E. (2014). Fundamentals of pharmacology (7th ed.). Frenchs Forest, Australia: Pearson Australia.  Cunha, B.A. (2007). Fever of Unknown Origin. Informa Healthcare, Taylor & Francis.  Craft, J., Gordon, C., Heuther, S., McCance, K., Brashers,V., & Rote, N. (2015). Understanding pathphysiology 2. Chatswood, Australia: Elsevier.  Lee, D., & Bishop, P. (2016). Microbiology and infection control for health professional (6th ed.). Melbourne, Victoria: Pearson Australia.  Lehne, R.A., Moore, L., Crosby, L., & Hamilton, D. (2013). Pharmacology for nursing care (8th ed.). St. Louis, Mo: Saunders/Elsevier.  Marieb, E.N., & Hoehn, K. (2016). Human anatomy & physiology (10th global ed.). Harlow, UK: Pearson Education.  Porth,C.M., & Matfin, G. (2014). Pathophysiology: Concepts of altered health status (9th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.  Rogers, K. (2011). Bacteria and Viruses (1st ed.). Britannica Educational Publishing.  WHO (2015). Influenza. An unpredictable threat. Retrived from on 4th September 2016.

Basic features

  • Free title page and bibliography
  • Unlimited revisions
  • Plagiarism-free guarantee
  • Money-back guarantee
  • 24/7 support

On-demand options

  • Writer's samples
  • Part-by-part delivery
  • Overnight delivery
  • Copies of used sources
  • Expert Proofreading

Paper format

  • 275 words per page
  • 12pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, CHicago/Turabian, Havard)

Guaranteed originality

We guarantee 0% plagiarism! Our orders are custom made from scratch. Our team is dedicated to providing you academic papers with zero traces of plagiarism.

Affordable prices

We know how hard it is to pay the bills while being in college, which is why our rates are extremely affordable and within your budget. You will not find any other company that provides the same quality of work for such affordable prices.

Best experts

Our writer are the crème de la crème of the essay writing industry. They are highly qualified in their field of expertise and have extensive experience when it comes to research papers, term essays or any other academic assignment that you may be given!

Calculate the price of your order

You will get a personal manager and a discount.
We'll send you the first draft for approval by at
Total price:

Expert paper writers are just a few clicks away

Place an order in 3 easy steps. Takes less than 5 mins.

error: Content is protected !!
Open chat
Need Homework Help? Let's Chat
Need Help With Your Assignment? Lets Talk