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Anthropology Of Power And Symbolism In Complex Society

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Anthropology Of Power And Symbolism In Complex Society Question: Discuss about the Anthropology Of Power And Symbolism In Complex Society.   Answer: Introduction The concept ritual is inevitable in our society as it is a system of activities involving objects, words, and gestures, and it is practiced in a seized place according to the system settings. Typically, rituals are a component of human culture. For example, a religious community can prescribe a ritual. Rituals in our society reflect the multiplicity of human experience in particular expertise (Blommaert, & Varis, 2015). Also, a ritual is a universal aspect that is practiced both within and between cultures.  Moreover, ritual plays a critical role in the field of anthropology as it acts as an entity of social, cultural analysis. The paper will answer five questions about the phenomena of rituals in our contemporary society. Difference Between A Ritualist And A Ritologist According To Ron Grimes According to Ron Grimes, the most critical thing about rituals is how they happen and not the fact that they happen. Grimes has played a prominent role in the field of anthropology as he has contributed a valuable set methodology in understanding the concept of rituals. The method has three stages; the first stage is identifying rituals at this stage one has to understand what ritual is. The second stage is mapping the ritual concept which is very critical according to Grimes, and the final step is ritualization. According to Ron Grimes ritualist are people who participate in ritual activities while Ritologist are people who study ritual actions and procedures. The Principle Difference Between Liminality In Ritual And Liminoid Events According to Turner Liminality is a transition stage of a specific ritual, for instance, the nature of initiation. Turner in his study was interested in how people handle symbol, what rituals does and how routines work. Turner argues that during the period of transition an individual is secluded in everyday life activities. Turner in his understanding of Liminality in rituals he compared tribal societies with western societies. He noted that the sensitivities of leisure, work, and play differ between the two communities. The principle difference between Liminality and Liminoid is that Liminality is obligatory in the society while Liminoid is optional. Typically, participating in a Liminal ritual earns an individual status or property in a community while non-participants are excluded, and they get no reward (Cohen, 2015). On the other, hand participating in Liminoid ritual activities, such as Carnivals festival does not call for rewards or exclusion. Also, Turner argued that Liminal aspects encompass the total social process in a defined community while Liminoid elements are experimental and independent of the whole. Ritual Sacra Three Manifestations According to Turner Sacra refers to the figurative model of the whole structure of values and beliefs in a defined culture. He argues that Sacra is the sentiment of liminal materials. Moreover, sacra play a vital role in the process of ritual as it is a place where liminal unfolds, and it prevents the outcome of Liminal from disrupting the entire social structure in which it’s taking place (Kemper, 2016). Typically, there are three manifestations of Sacra. Sacra is manifested as deeds or actions that which is done, demonstration that which is displayed, and instructions that which is said. Demonstrations    In the manifestation of Sacra, demonstrations take the system of objects such as exhibitions of masks, saints, gods, and drums. For example, Turner used the Ndembu community to understand how Sacra is manifested in the form of initiation masks (Richards, 2015). In this case, the costumes are not meant to scare people but to focus on the process of initiation.   Instructions Instructions refer to a step by step procedure that the ritualist says when they are practicing the act. An example of a medium of instructions is mythology and revelation of reality. A direction is significant in the manifestation of Sacra because it is through the instruction that the action takes place (Robbins, 2015). Actions Actions are one of the manifestations of Sacra it is that which is done. For example, dancing and singing at the Vhusha Rituals mark the opening of the ceremony.  Reasons Why Some Venda Speaking Women Are Critical Of The Vhusha Ritual Vhusha is a formality attended by Venda girls who have had their first mentation. Vhusha ceremony plays a critical role among the girls in the community as young girls are taught about etiquette and good behavior (Tavor, 2015). The ritual has strict rules where only virgins were allowed to participate in the ceremony. The primary goal of the tradition was to teach mature girls how to relate with their senior with respect and etiquette. The reason why Vhusha ritual was critical among the Venda women is that they were taught about sexual intercourse and that it was only practiced among the married people. The ceremony ensured that mature girls were educated on matters about sexual activities. Also, through the ceremony, mature girls acquired their identity. For example, they were taught about their roles as women and even to understand their status in the society. Olympic game is an international multi-sport held after every four years. Olympic games got its roots in Olympia Greece that was inspired by the ancient Olympic sports (Giulianotti, 2015). The Olympic games have promoted unity across the globe as different people from different cultures meet and interact. It is clear that Olympic games are a form of ritual as its opening is marked by an artistic program the opening ceremony. The sacred flame of the game is a component of a ritual (Jirásek, 2015). A flame is a form of a symbol that represents the Olympic movement. Usually, the fire is lit at the beginning of the game, and it burns and snuffed at the closing ceremony. Also, the component of ritual that exists in the game is the carrying of the Olympic flag which is symbolic it has a white background and blue, yellow, black green and red rings interlaced together. The flag represents five continents of the globe.    Conclusion Rituals in our society reflect the multiplicity of human experience in particular expertise. Also, ritual is a universal aspect that is practiced both within and between cultures. Ritual plays a critical role in the field of anthropology as it acts as an entity of social, cultural analysis. Lastly, the concept ritual is inevitable in our society as it is a system of activities practiced in our day to day activities.   Reference Blommaert, J., & Varis, P. (2015). Conviviality and collectives on social media: Virality, memes, and new social structures. Multilingual Margins, 2(1), 31-45. Cohen, A. (2015). Two-dimensional man: An essay on the anthropology of power and symbolism in complex society. Routledge. Giulianotti, R. (2015). Sport: A critical sociology. John Wiley & Sons. Jirásek, I. (2015). Religion, spirituality, and sport: from religio athletae toward spiritus athletae. Quest, 67(3), 290-299. Kemper, T. D. (2016). Status, power and ritual interaction: A relational reading of Durkheim, Goffman and Collins. Routledge.  Richards, G. (2015). Events in the network society: The role of pulsar and iterative events. Event Management, 19(4), 553-566. Robbins, J. (2015). The anthropology of global pentecostalism and evangelicalism. NYU Press. Tavor, O. (2015). Michael David Kaulana Ing The Dysfunction of Ritual in Early Confucianism.

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