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ADS1151 Addiction Studies Fundamental Concepts

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ADS1151 Addiction Studies Fundamental Concepts Question: Answer all parts of the question below   a) Describe Zinberg’s Interaction Model and explain how this model contributes to an understanding of psychoactive drug use.   b) With reference the drug HEROIN, explain how this drug may influence the subjective drug use experience. Use two different examples to illustrate your answer.   c) With reference to the drug ALCOHOL, explain how the individual may influence the subjective drug use experience. Use two different examples to illustrate your answer.   d) With reference to MDMA (Methylenedioxymethamphetamine) explain how the environment may influence the subjective drug use experience. Use two different examples to illustrate your answer. Answer: a. Zinberg’s interaction model was proposed in the year 1984 and acts essential in gaining a deeper insight into the relationship that exists between a plethora of factors and their impact on drug usage experience. Three primary factors that are identified by this model include the following: The properties of the drug that is being consumed (the substance) The characteristics of the individual or the drug user (the set) The environment in which the person is being intoxicated (the setting) Thus, the model was aimed at providing a comprehensive and an exhaustive explanation on the different factors that need to be taken into consideration while addressing issues related to use of drugs. This above postulates proposed by Zinberg are referred to as the Interaction Model and takes into account the fact that no personal drug use can be denoted totally bad or totally good. Furthermore, the model also elucidates on the benefits of each drug and the cost effectiveness. Thus, Zinberg stated that in order to understand why a person becomes impelled to use one other form of an illicit drug, and what effects the drug creates on the user, the three determinants of the pharmacological action of the drug being investigated, the attitude of the user, and the influence that social or physical settings exert must be considered (Department of Health, 2018). Zinberg also stated that of these three variables, the setting has not received adequate attention in the field of research. This can be attributed to the fact that most of the present understanding on the usage of drugs depends on the individual psychopathology. The below given diagram represents the model: Figure 1- Interaction Model Source- Department of Health, 2018 b. Drugs such as heroin do not possess any specific intrinsic property that exert a direct pharmacological impact on the person using them. Heroin, also referred to as diamorphine is an opioid that is commonly used for recreational purpose, owing to the euphoric effects that it exerts. Subjective experience is commonly defined as the conscious experience quality that makes people hold a mental impression or sensation that certain events are occurring to them. Upon entering the brain, heroin directly gets converted to morphine and demonstrates a rapid binding with the opioid receptors. Binding to the receptors leads to the drug’s analgesic, anxiolytic and euphoric effect (Blum et al., 2013). One common subjective experience that is generally reported by heroin users comprise of a feeling of pleasurable sensation and a rush. This intensity of the rush experienced by the drug users can be defined in terms of a function of the amount of drug that is consumed and the speed with which it binds to the receptors (Harris et al., 2013). Another subjective experience stated by most heroin users encompass the feeling of the world slowing down. This provides the users with a feeling of wellbeing and warmth. This fall sense of wellbeing has been found to reduce and relief all feelings of anxiety and pain. This in turn provides an escapade to the users and increases addiction to the drug (Bacciardi et al., 2013). Thus, the interaction of the drug with the receptors located in the central nervous system changes the experiences of the person consuming it depending on the individual characteristics of the user, and the setting in which the drug is being consumed. c. Subjective experiences in relation to alcohol consumption is also referred to as subjective response (SR) and explains the unique experience of an individual to the pharmacological impacts of alcohol. This also acts as a major risk factor for the onset of alcohol use disorder. Owing to its addictive role, alcohol generally exerts a range of neurobiological and behavioural impacts. Playing the role of a psychoactive compound, alcohol elicits a gamut of behavioural effects that encompass anxiolysis, gregariousness, loss of executive functions aggression, and cognitive insufficiencies. A range of pharmacokinetic issues namely, absorption, distribution, and metabolism rate, principally in the liver contributes to the duration and intensity of the effects of ethanol (Morean, Corbin & Treat, 2013). On the other hand, an assortment of pharmacodynamic aspects, determine the subjective and behavioural influence of ethanol on the human brain. The field of subjective reactions to alcohol is credited to the capacity of ethanol to activate or inhibit numerous neural pathways. One common example of subjective alcohol is bringing about an enhancement of the overall wellbeing and/or mood of the user. This results in the development of happy feelings such as, thrill, excitement, delight, connectedness, high self-esteem, and confidence (Ray et al., 2013). Another subjective experience is related to reduction in discomfort or pain that are related to negative emotions. Hence, alcohol consumption helps in hiding or masking feelings of rejection and/or isolation. d. MDMA also referred to as 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine is a synthetic drug that shows chemical similarity to hallucinogens and stimulants, and alters the perception and mood among the users. This psychoactive drug is primarily used for recreational purpose and begin exerting the effects, following 30-45 minutes of its consumption. The drug primarily acts in the form of a presynaptic releasing substance of norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine that increase due to its activity at the TAAR1 and VMAT2 receptors. Some of the most commonly identified groups of individuals who resort to the use of this drug are those attending dance clubs, social gatherings, favouring its usage in small groups, or with partners. One common subjective response that MDMA produces is related to the feeling of ecstasy. This is a subjective experience where the person gets completely involved with an item related to his/her awareness (Benningfield & Cowan, 2013). MDMA produces a sudden intensification of personal emotions that results in a trancelike dissociation from the all feelings, except those that overpower the individual (Frye et al., 2014). Hence, the users most often enter a transformed state of consciousness and lose contact with their reality. Another subjective experience is related to dysphoria. This experience is manifested in the form of a sudden and thoughtful state of dissatisfaction and unease that accompanies anxiety, agitation and dissatisfaction. Furthermore, this state of distress and uneasiness, when gets intensified, also leads to the onset of suicidal ideations among the drug users. Thus, MDMA leads to major psychiatric symptoms among the individuals. References Bacciardi, S., Maremmani, A. G. I., Rovai, L., Rugani, F., Pani, P. P., Pacini, M., … & Maremmani, I. (2013). Drug (heroin) addiction, bipolar spectrum and impulse control disorders. Heroin Addict Relat Clin Probl, 15(2), 29-36. Benningfield, M. M., & Cowan, R. L. (2013). Brain serotonin function in MDMA (ecstasy) users: evidence for persisting neurotoxicity. Neuropsychopharmacology, 38(1), 253. Blum, J., Gerber, H., Gerhard, U., Schmid, O., Petitjean, S., Riecher?Rössler, A., … & Walter, M. (2013). Acute effects of heroin on emotions in heroin?dependent patients. The American journal on addictions, 22(6), 598-604. Department of Health. (2018). 2.5 Interaction model. Retrieved from Frye, C. G., Wardle, M. C., Norman, G. J., & de Wit, H. (2014). MDMA decreases the effects of simulated social rejection. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 117, 1-6. Harris, J. L., Lorvick, J., Wenger, L., Wilkins, T., Iguchi, M. Y., Bourgois, P., & Kral, A. H. (2013). Low-frequency heroin injection among out-of-treatment, street-recruited injection drug users. Journal of Urban Health, 90(2), 299-306. Morean, M. E., Corbin, W. R., & Treat, T. A. (2013). The Subjective Effects of Alcohol Scale: Development and psychometric evaluation of a novel assessment tool for measuring subjective response to alcohol. Psychological assessment, 25(3), 780. Ray, L. A., Bujarski, S., MacKillop, J., Courtney, K. E., Monti, P. M., & Miotto, K. (2013). Subjective response to alcohol among alcohol?dependent individuals: effects of the mu?opioid receptor (OPRM1) gene and alcoholism severity. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 37, E116-E124.

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