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401175 Analytic Approaches In Epidemiology

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401175 Analytic Approaches In Epidemiology Questions: 1.Discuss the Strengths of the Epidemiologic approach in understanding Notions of Causation.   2.Discuss the limitations of the epidemiologic approach in understanding Notions of Causation   3.What, if anything, does the Discipline of Epidemiology have to offer global society in the 21st century in understanding the Causes of Disease?     Answers: 1.Strengths Of The Epidemiologic Approach In Understanding Causation Notions First the approach enables the development and/or implementation of effective preventive measures of different diseases before there is complete determination of the causative mechanism (Gallagher, 2012). Epidemiological approach offers practical skills on solving viable health problems in different settings before the specific-causative-mechanism determination is done. For example where it informs community members to lower high–lipid food intake so as enable them avoid cardiovascular diseases (Martínez-González & Bes-Rastrollo, 2011). Secondly, the epidemiological approach helps in the reporting of rare events in the population on health. In this regard, it provides an informational source for relevant further study on the frequency of particular diseases, the existing risk factors, disease prognosis and the processes of treatment (Parascandola, 2011). Thirdly, the epidemiological approach can be used in describing certain side effects caused by different drug regimes in treating particular diseases within a population (Hewa, 2016). This can help in informing decision making for pharmacological companies in improving drugs for current and future use. Further according to Kim (2013), the epidemiological approach helps in providing first clues regarding generalized diseases aetiologies and risks involved. The approach can then provide a direction on formulating clinical research hypothesis in establishing specific causes and related effects. 2.Weaknesses Of The Epidemiologic Approach In Understanding Causation Notions The first weakness of the approach is that its studies mostly cannot control any confounding factors in the population according to Gallagher (2012). As a result, interpretation of the results obtained from a field study can be often difficult. The approach’s observational studies have two main disadvantages. The first disadvantage is that in its observational studies, the epidemiological approach does not directly study the aetiology of a disease by comparing the experience of both the exposed and/or unexposed individuals in society to a given putative risk factor (Yairi & Ambrose, 2013). Secondly, the observational studies in the epidemiological approach are very susceptible to chance and can be misleading in drawing conclusions on causation establishment. Another weakness of the epidemiological approach is that some of its observational studies minimally involve collection of the systematic information especially on extraneous factors (Kim, 2013). This thus renders study result interpretation difficult. Further under the community interventions used in the approach, people are likely to access available interventions particularly on their own due to a lack of tight rules for controlling access to interventions (Platt, 2011). Due to the weaknesses, epidemiological studies only seek to reject or not reject hypotheses but not accept them the approach is not conclusive especially in regard to understanding disease causation.   3.Importance Of Epidemiology To 21st Century Global Health Yes, I agree that epidemiology grew slowly and even briefly flourished after which it however nearly disappeared leaving disease prevention knowledge, human-action related health consequence evaluation techniques, and several controversial alarms behind. Ethical restrictions on epidemiological studies which emerged in the 1980s as controversial alarms which limited the use of human subjects, contributed to the partial disappearance of the epidemiological approach. Epidemiological principles are however imperative in informing decisions on health promotion, diseases prevention, mapping of most at-risk groups among other health programs. Eepidemiology in the 21st Century has enabled the study of factors that influence health outcomes and these included agent, host and the environment and the existing interaction to bring about disease (Yairi & Ambrose, 2013). The approach contributes to the foundation of disease and injury prevention, health services promotion and awareness creation on causes and effects of disease. Epidemiology also enables institutions to determine causes of certain disabilities and mortality so as effectively allocate resources and interventions appropriately based on priorities (Gallagher, 2012). This approach helps determine and map populations that are at most risk of being affected by different diseases.  The 21st Century has seen epidemiological techniques used in the assessment of intervention programs and a continuous surveillance of disease causation, outbreaks, and endemic disease trends. Causal awareness in epidemiology informs decisions on plans and/or actions aimed at breaking the relationship between a disease and causation mechanism (García et al, 2011). Further, epidemiological approaches are being used in predicting the performance of health interventions in order to inform decisions on best practice options in disease prevention. Conclusively according to Hewa (2016), in the wake of emerging and re-emerging diseases including the complexity of health dynamics, epidemiological approaches will remain useful in understanding notions of disease causation into the future.   References Gallagher, L. (2012). Session Title: Ethics and Epidemiologic Decision-Making for Population Benefits. Annals of Epidemiology, 22(9), 680. García Álvarez, L., Aylin, P., Tian, J., Catchpole, M., & Holmes, A. (2011). Innovative uses of existing NHS databases to support hospital epidemiology and surveillance. Journal of Infection, 63(6), e111. Gupte, S. (2016). Role of Molecular Epidemiology in Infectious Disease Surveillance. Journal of Human Virology & Retrovirology, 3(6). Hewa, S. (2016). Theories of disease causation: Social epidemiology and epidemiological transition. Galle Medical Journal, 20(2), 26. Kim, J. (2013). Epidemiology and Causation. Kosin Medical Journal, 28(2), 87. Li, H. (2013). Systems biology approaches to epidemiological studies of complex diseases. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Systems Biology and Medicine, 5(6), 677-686. Martínez-González, M. and Bes-Rastrollo, M. (2011). Nut consumption, weight gain and obesity: Epidemiological evidence. Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, 21, pp.S40-S45. Parascandola, M. (2011). Causes, risks, and probabilities: Probabilistic concepts of causation in chronic disease epidemiology. Preventive Medicine, 53(4-5), 232-234. Platt, M. (2011). Teaching epidemiology: A guide for teachers in epidemiology, public health and clinical medicine. Public Health, 125(4), 241-242. Rothman, K.J (2007). The rise and fall of epidemiology, 1950-2000 A.D. International Journal of Epidemiology 2007; 36(4): 708-710. Yairi, E., & Ambrose, N. (2013). Epidemiology of stuttering: 21st century advances. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 38(2), 66-87.

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